RAPE LAW A FEMINIST LEGAL ANALYSIS M BENSON PDF



Rape Law A Feminist Legal Analysis M Benson Pdf

Feminist Criticism of Criminal Law Law Teacher. RAPE, FEMINISM, AND THE WAR ON CRIME Aya Gruber* Abstract: Over the past several years, feminism has been increasingly associated with crime control and the incarceration of men. In apparent lock step with the movement of the American penal system, feminists have advocated a host of reforms to strengthen state power to punish gender-based crimes. In the rape context, …, U. FEMINIST JURISPRUDENCE, FEMINIST METHOD, AND FEMINIST LEGAL SCHOLARSHIP A. Feminist Jurisprudence The first recorded use of the phrase "feminist jurisprudence" occurred in 1978 at a conference celebrating the twenty-fifth anniversary of women graduates of the Harvard Law School. Professor Ann Scales,.

Date Rape Feminism Philosophy and the Law Google Books

Feminist Criticism of Criminal Law Law Teacher. RAPE, FEMINISM, AND THE WAR ON CRIME Aya Gruber* Abstract: Over the past several years, feminism has been increasingly associated with crime control and the incarceration of men. In apparent lock step with the movement of the American penal system, feminists have advocated a host of reforms to strengthen state power to punish gender-based crimes. In the rape context, …, Here too, the focus is on feminist legal scholarship because it is in the field of law that literature was generated by Indian legal feminists after the Mathura case. The aim of contemporary legal feminists is on reforming the rape law. The legal system is also a part of society and much of the biases, attitudes and beliefs.

SEX, CULTURE, AND THE BIOLOGY OF RAPE Sex, Culture, and the Biology of Rape: Toward Explanation and Prevention Owen D. Jones For all that has been written about rape, its multiple causes remain insufficiently understood for law to deter it effectively. This follows, Professor Jones argues, from inadequately interdisciplinary study of rape This paper shows how the mythology surrounding rape enters into a criterion of ‘reasonableness’ which operates through the legal system to make women vulnerable to unscrupulous victimization. It explores the possibility for changes in legal procedures and presumptions that would better serve women's interests and leave them less vulnerable

01/02/2007 · Sexual consent is an understudied and undertheorized concept despite its importance to feminist researchers and activists interested in sexual violence. Literature on consent, although sparse, has been produced from a variety of disciplines, including law, psychology, and sociology. This article is a critical review of current literature and while rape has been found to constitute torture in some very limited circumstances,3 rape remains a phenomenon in respect of which all legal systems appear to be incompetent. We are still searching for legal strategies to deal with rape. This article considers whether, in terms of feminist strategy, MacKinnon’s advocacy of ‘rape as torture’

Yale Journal of Law & Feminism A Critical R ace Feminist Perspective on Prostitution & Sex Trafick ing in America Cheryl Nelson Butler 0 SMU Dedman School of Law 0 0 This Article is brought to you for free and open access by Yale Law School Legal Scholarship Repository. RAPE, FEMINISM, AND THE WAR ON CRIME Aya Gruber* Abstract: Over the past several years, feminism has been increasingly associated with crime control and the incarceration of men. In apparent lock step with the movement of the American penal system, feminists have advocated a host of reforms to strengthen state power to punish gender-based crimes. In the rape context, …

Part 1 describes feminist theory concerning rape, Part 2 discusses some of the misogynistic images that have influenced rape law while Part 3 surveys some of the changes that have occurred in the United States, England and Israel concerning rape law. Part 4 analyzes the effects of these changes. MASCULINITIES AND FEMINIST LEGAL THEORY The woman question is comprised of a rich series of questions that has continued to challenge inequality as well as expose the silences and absences of women in law and society. As feminist theory has developed, it also has been

SEX, CULTURE, AND THE BIOLOGY OF RAPE Sex, Culture, and the Biology of Rape: Toward Explanation and Prevention Owen D. Jones For all that has been written about rape, its multiple causes remain insufficiently understood for law to deter it effectively. This follows, Professor Jones argues, from inadequately interdisciplinary study of rape ‘Freedom and capacity to make a choice’: A feminist analysis of consent in the criminal law of rape. In Sexuality and the law: Feminist engagements , ed. Vanessa Munro, and …

Yale Journal of Law & Feminism A Critical R ace Feminist Perspective on Prostitution & Sex Trafick ing in America Cheryl Nelson Butler 0 SMU Dedman School of Law 0 0 This Article is brought to you for free and open access by Yale Law School Legal Scholarship Repository. Law acknowledged that a non-virgin could be forcibly raped, but only by a non-spouse. Edwards’s rule also had several other unique contributions to the legal construction of rape. It was under his reign that the concept of statutory rape was developed along with the differentiation of rape by degrees. One of the most important changes was

Feminist Criticism of Criminal Law Law Teacher

rape law a feminist legal analysis m benson pdf

Assessing The Feminist Views Of Rape Law Essay. Criminal defense attorney and Georgetown Law professor Abbe Smith wrote a Law Review article last year about defending rape cases as a feminist, …, Feminism vs. the State?: A Decade of Sexual Offences Law Reform in South Africa Lillian Artz and Dee Smythe abstract South Africa’s transition to a democratic state has been accompanied by an intensive focus on the use of the law as an instrument to address high levels of sexual assault as well as other social problems..

Rethinking Rape Law International and Comparative. Part 1 describes feminist theory concerning rape, Part 2 discusses some of the misogynistic images that have influenced rape law while Part 3 surveys some of the changes that have occurred in the United States, England and Israel concerning rape law. Part 4 analyzes the effects of these changes., Title: Date Rape: A Feminist Analysis Created Date: 20160811015607Z.

Sex Culture and the Biology of Rape Toward Explanation

rape law a feminist legal analysis m benson pdf

SOUTH AFRICAN LAW COMMISSION Project 107 SEXUAL. Part 1 describes feminist theory concerning rape, Part 2 discusses some of the misogynistic images that have influenced rape law while Part 3 surveys some of the changes that have occurred in the United States, England and Israel concerning rape law. Part 4 analyzes the effects of these changes. Yale Journal of Law & Feminism A Critical R ace Feminist Perspective on Prostitution & Sex Trafick ing in America Cheryl Nelson Butler 0 SMU Dedman School of Law 0 0 This Article is brought to you for free and open access by Yale Law School Legal Scholarship Repository..

rape law a feminist legal analysis m benson pdf

  • Feminist Perspectives on Rape (Stanford Encyclopedia of
  • Failing to Achieve the Goal A Feminist Perspective on Why
  • Assessing The Feminist Views Of Rape Law Essay

  • SEX, CULTURE, AND THE BIOLOGY OF RAPE Sex, Culture, and the Biology of Rape: Toward Explanation and Prevention Owen D. Jones For all that has been written about rape, its multiple causes remain insufficiently understood for law to deter it effectively. This follows, Professor Jones argues, from inadequately interdisciplinary study of rape Rethinking Rape Law provides a comprehensive and critical analysis of contemporary rape laws, across a range of jurisdictions. In a context in which there has been considerable legal reform of sexual offences, Rethinking Rape Law engages with developments spanning national, regional and international frameworks.

    For a proper analysis of the Sexual Offences Act (SOA) 2003 reforming the law on rape, the position of the law prior to the reformation must be considered with a view to providing the background for an adequate analysis of the Act of 2003 and the extent of its effectiveness in reforming the law. LEGAL REFORM OF THE LAW Here too, the focus is on feminist legal scholarship because it is in the field of law that literature was generated by Indian legal feminists after the Mathura case. The aim of contemporary legal feminists is on reforming the rape law. The legal system is also a part of society and much of the biases, attitudes and beliefs

    Date Rape A Feminist Analysis Lois Pineau. 1: Date Rape and Erotic Discourse David M Adams. 27: Date Rape and the Law Another Feminist View Catharine Pierce Wells. 41: Forcible Rape Date Rape and Communicative Sexuality A Legal Perspective Angela P Harris. 51: A Response to My Critics Lois Pineau. 63: A Dialogue on Evidence Angela P Harris and Lois Pineau . 109: The … Here too, the focus is on feminist legal scholarship because it is in the field of law that literature was generated by Indian legal feminists after the Mathura case. The aim of contemporary legal feminists is on reforming the rape law. The legal system is also a part of society and much of the biases, attitudes and beliefs

    01/02/2007 · Sexual consent is an understudied and undertheorized concept despite its importance to feminist researchers and activists interested in sexual violence. Literature on consent, although sparse, has been produced from a variety of disciplines, including law, psychology, and sociology. This article is a critical review of current literature and Law acknowledged that a non-virgin could be forcibly raped, but only by a non-spouse. Edwards’s rule also had several other unique contributions to the legal construction of rape. It was under his reign that the concept of statutory rape was developed along with the differentiation of rape by degrees. One of the most important changes was

    Date Rape. Feminism, Philosophy, and the Law. Edited by Leslie Francis “Date Rape is a remarkable contribution to the field of feminist thought. For anyone who wishes to better understand why date rape IS rape, this book is a necessary read. FEMINIST THEORY Examining Branches of Feminism Feminism Defined What follows are different branches of feminism theory that are recognized by feminists and feminist scholars. These different theories of feminism are widely acknowledged and taught in women's studies courses, gender studies courses, and the like. Often people have created their own definition of feminism …

    Rethinking Rape Law provides a comprehensive and critical analysis of contemporary rape laws, across a range of jurisdictions. In a context in which there has been considerable legal reform of sexual offences, Rethinking Rape Law engages with developments spanning national, regional and international frameworks. Yale Journal of Law & Feminism A Critical R ace Feminist Perspective on Prostitution & Sex Trafick ing in America Cheryl Nelson Butler 0 SMU Dedman School of Law 0 0 This Article is brought to you for free and open access by Yale Law School Legal Scholarship Repository.

    Failing to Achieve the Goal A Feminist Perspective on Why

    rape law a feminist legal analysis m benson pdf

    A 'Neo-Feminist' Assessment of Rape and Domestic Violence. women are heard, should have much to say about evidence law, particularly in the area of rape. Evidence law is an ideal candidate for feminist analysis because both evidence and feminism are concerned with questions of relevance, communication, and credibility. Re-cently, feminist scholarship has begun to examine evidence. See, e.g., Kit, SEX, CULTURE, AND THE BIOLOGY OF RAPE Sex, Culture, and the Biology of Rape: Toward Explanation and Prevention Owen D. Jones For all that has been written about rape, its multiple causes remain insufficiently understood for law to deter it effectively. This follows, Professor Jones argues, from inadequately interdisciplinary study of rape.

    Feminism vs. the State? A Decade of Sexual Offences Law

    A Historical Summary and Analysis of Rape Law. U. FEMINIST JURISPRUDENCE, FEMINIST METHOD, AND FEMINIST LEGAL SCHOLARSHIP A. Feminist Jurisprudence The first recorded use of the phrase "feminist jurisprudence" occurred in 1978 at a conference celebrating the twenty-fifth anniversary of women graduates of the Harvard Law School. Professor Ann Scales,, Feminist theorizing about rape draws on a rich tradition of feminist scholarship in many disciplines, as well as on women's insights into their own rape experiences and on the knowledge gained through decades of feminist anti-violence activism..

    Yale Journal of Law & Feminism A Critical R ace Feminist Perspective on Prostitution & Sex Trafick ing in America Cheryl Nelson Butler 0 SMU Dedman School of Law 0 0 This Article is brought to you for free and open access by Yale Law School Legal Scholarship Repository. (either for social roles or legal rights), and putative sex differences have been, and in some parts of the world continue to be, the basis of laws denying women the right to retain prop- erty in marriage and the right to vote. In Vindication of the Rights of Woman, Wollstonecraft wrote that many of the supposed

    01/02/2007 · Sexual consent is an understudied and undertheorized concept despite its importance to feminist researchers and activists interested in sexual violence. Literature on consent, although sparse, has been produced from a variety of disciplines, including law, psychology, and sociology. This article is a critical review of current literature and A “Neo-feminist” Assessment of Rape and Domestic Violence Law Reform Aya Gruber∗ I. INTRODUCTION For the past several decades, the slogan, “The personal is political,” has been the widespread rallying cry of American feminists.1 Regarding my own beliefs on the state of

    FEMINIST THEORY Examining Branches of Feminism Feminism Defined What follows are different branches of feminism theory that are recognized by feminists and feminist scholars. These different theories of feminism are widely acknowledged and taught in women's studies courses, gender studies courses, and the like. Often people have created their own definition of feminism … PDF The central theme of this paper is that rape reformers, including many feminists, have too often taken the partial route of demanding concern for the woman victim, while taking positions

    Failing to Achieve the Goal: A Feminist Perspective on Why Rape Law Reform in Taiwan Has been Unsuccessful CHIH-CHIEH LIN* ABSTRACT It has been more than ten years since feminists and legal scholars drove the first wave of rape law reform in Taiwan. Reform in the 1990s included the passage of the Anti-Rape Act and significant amendments to the Taiwanese Criminal Code … Feminist Analysis of Human Rights Law article looks at the universality claim of human rights law from the feminist perspective, according to which, the human rights discourse is an extension of a gendered international legal system that fails to take into consideration the voices of women (Gottschalk, n.d.: 1). The article also explores the stance of cultural relativists on human rights

    women are heard, should have much to say about evidence law, particularly in the area of rape. Evidence law is an ideal candidate for feminist analysis because both evidence and feminism are concerned with questions of relevance, communication, and credibility. Re-cently, feminist scholarship has begun to examine evidence. See, e.g., Kit women are heard, should have much to say about evidence law, particularly in the area of rape. Evidence law is an ideal candidate for feminist analysis because both evidence and feminism are concerned with questions of relevance, communication, and credibility. Re-cently, feminist scholarship has begun to examine evidence. See, e.g., Kit

    Feminist theorizing about rape draws on a rich tradition of feminist scholarship in many disciplines, as well as on women's insights into their own rape experiences and on the knowledge gained through decades of feminist anti-violence activism. In feminist analysis, a rape is not an isolated event or moral transgression or individual interchange gone wrong but an act of terrorism and torture within a systemic context of group subjection, like lynching. The fact that the state calls rape a crime opens an inquiry into the state’s treatment of rape as an index to its stance on the status of the sexes.

    Here too, the focus is on feminist legal scholarship because it is in the field of law that literature was generated by Indian legal feminists after the Mathura case. The aim of contemporary legal feminists is on reforming the rape law. The legal system is also a part of society and much of the biases, attitudes and beliefs Date Rape: Feminist Analysis A little still she strove, and much repented And whispering 'I will ne'er consent' - consented by way of alerting law students to the difficulty of distinguishing real protest from pretence.'? Thus, while in principle, a firm unambiguous stand, or a healthy show of temper ought to be sufficient, if estab-

    Toward a Feminist Theory of the State is a 1989 book about feminist political theory by the legal scholar Catharine MacKinnon Summary. MacKinnon argues that feminism had "no account of male power as an ordered yet deranged whole"; that is, a systematic account of the structural organization whereby male dominance is instantiated and enforced. Although earlier writers, … Georgetown University Law Center Scholarship @ GEORGETOWN LAW 2000 The "Normal" Successes and Failures of Feminism and the Criminal Law Victoria Nourse Georgetown Law Center, vfn@law.georgetown.edu Georgetown Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 13-037 This paper can be downloaded free of charge from:

    Women’s Sexual Agency and the Law of Rape in the 21st Century 67 The analysis of contemporary culture also shows that sexual agency, particularly among younger women, manifests itself in the embrace of gen- der differentiation and sexual objectification. By constructing their bodies as ideal Law acknowledged that a non-virgin could be forcibly raped, but only by a non-spouse. Edwards’s rule also had several other unique contributions to the legal construction of rape. It was under his reign that the concept of statutory rape was developed along with the differentiation of rape by degrees. One of the most important changes was

    SEX, CULTURE, AND THE BIOLOGY OF RAPE Sex, Culture, and the Biology of Rape: Toward Explanation and Prevention Owen D. Jones For all that has been written about rape, its multiple causes remain insufficiently understood for law to deter it effectively. This follows, Professor Jones argues, from inadequately interdisciplinary study of rape Here too, the focus is on feminist legal scholarship because it is in the field of law that literature was generated by Indian legal feminists after the Mathura case. The aim of contemporary legal feminists is on reforming the rape law. The legal system is also a part of society and much of the biases, attitudes and beliefs

    Date Rape: Feminist Analysis A little still she strove, and much repented And whispering 'I will ne'er consent' - consented by way of alerting law students to the difficulty of distinguishing real protest from pretence.'? Thus, while in principle, a firm unambiguous stand, or a healthy show of temper ought to be sufficient, if estab- Toward a Feminist Theory of the State is a 1989 book about feminist political theory by the legal scholar Catharine MacKinnon Summary. MacKinnon argues that feminism had "no account of male power as an ordered yet deranged whole"; that is, a systematic account of the structural organization whereby male dominance is instantiated and enforced. Although earlier writers, …

    Law acknowledged that a non-virgin could be forcibly raped, but only by a non-spouse. Edwards’s rule also had several other unique contributions to the legal construction of rape. It was under his reign that the concept of statutory rape was developed along with the differentiation of rape by degrees. One of the most important changes was PDF Although limited in number and scope, existing rape theories attempt to understand, on both individual and societal levels, the motivation to commit rape and the aftermath of victimization.

    Failing to Achieve the Goal A Feminist Perspective on Why

    rape law a feminist legal analysis m benson pdf

    Women's Sexual Agency and the Law of Rape in the 21st Century. 22/07/2016В В· Date Rape: Feminism, Philosophy, and the Law [Leslie Francis] on Amazon.com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. From Mike Tyson to the Portland Trail Blazers to William Kennedy Smith, from Katie Roiphe's The Morning After to the Antioch College policy, Yale Journal of Law & Feminism A Critical R ace Feminist Perspective on Prostitution & Sex Trafick ing in America Cheryl Nelson Butler 0 SMU Dedman School of Law 0 0 This Article is brought to you for free and open access by Yale Law School Legal Scholarship Repository..

    Feminist History of Rape safeplaceolympia.org. Rethinking Rape Law provides a comprehensive and critical analysis of contemporary rape laws, across a range of jurisdictions. In a context in which there has been considerable legal reform of sexual offences, Rethinking Rape Law engages with developments spanning national, regional and international frameworks., Date Rape A Feminist Analysis Lois Pineau. 1: Date Rape and Erotic Discourse David M Adams. 27: Date Rape and the Law Another Feminist View Catharine Pierce Wells. 41: Forcible Rape Date Rape and Communicative Sexuality A Legal Perspective Angela P Harris. 51: A Response to My Critics Lois Pineau. 63: A Dialogue on Evidence Angela P Harris and Lois Pineau . 109: The ….

    ‘Spontaneous’ Sexual Consent An Analysis of Sexual

    rape law a feminist legal analysis m benson pdf

    Date rape A feminist analysis SpringerLink. Feminist Analysis of Human Rights Law article looks at the universality claim of human rights law from the feminist perspective, according to which, the human rights discourse is an extension of a gendered international legal system that fails to take into consideration the voices of women (Gottschalk, n.d.: 1). The article also explores the stance of cultural relativists on human rights Feminist theorizing about rape draws on a rich tradition of feminist scholarship in many disciplines, as well as on women's insights into their own rape experiences and on the knowledge gained through decades of feminist anti-violence activism..

    rape law a feminist legal analysis m benson pdf


    American colonial law held that “by marriage, the husband and wife are one person in the law. The very being and legal existence of the woman is suspended during the . marriage, or at least is incorporated into that of her husband under whose wing and protection she performs everything.” 01/02/2007 · Sexual consent is an understudied and undertheorized concept despite its importance to feminist researchers and activists interested in sexual violence. Literature on consent, although sparse, has been produced from a variety of disciplines, including law, psychology, and sociology. This article is a critical review of current literature and

    Here too, the focus is on feminist legal scholarship because it is in the field of law that literature was generated by Indian legal feminists after the Mathura case. The aim of contemporary legal feminists is on reforming the rape law. The legal system is also a part of society and much of the biases, attitudes and beliefs Date Rape A Feminist Analysis Lois Pineau. 1: Date Rape and Erotic Discourse David M Adams. 27: Date Rape and the Law Another Feminist View Catharine Pierce Wells. 41: Forcible Rape Date Rape and Communicative Sexuality A Legal Perspective Angela P Harris. 51: A Response to My Critics Lois Pineau. 63: A Dialogue on Evidence Angela P Harris and Lois Pineau . 109: The …

    With the feminist movement of the 1960s, rape was reconceptualized as a mechanism for maintaining male control and domination, a violent means of inducing fear in women and reinforcing their subordination to men. This reconceptualization has made a clear difference in the way our culture defines and understands sexual assault, but much still needs to change. women are heard, should have much to say about evidence law, particularly in the area of rape. Evidence law is an ideal candidate for feminist analysis because both evidence and feminism are concerned with questions of relevance, communication, and credibility. Re-cently, feminist scholarship has begun to examine evidence. See, e.g., Kit

    Failing to Achieve the Goal: A Feminist Perspective on Why Rape Law Reform in Taiwan Has been Unsuccessful CHIH-CHIEH LIN* ABSTRACT It has been more than ten years since feminists and legal scholars drove the first wave of rape law reform in Taiwan. Reform in the 1990s included the passage of the Anti-Rape Act and significant amendments to the Taiwanese Criminal Code … For a proper analysis of the Sexual Offences Act (SOA) 2003 reforming the law on rape, the position of the law prior to the reformation must be considered with a view to providing the background for an adequate analysis of the Act of 2003 and the extent of its effectiveness in reforming the law. LEGAL REFORM OF THE LAW

    while rape has been found to constitute torture in some very limited circumstances,3 rape remains a phenomenon in respect of which all legal systems appear to be incompetent. We are still searching for legal strategies to deal with rape. This article considers whether, in terms of feminist strategy, MacKinnon’s advocacy of ‘rape as torture’ Feminist theorizing about rape draws on a rich tradition of feminist scholarship in many disciplines, as well as on women's insights into their own rape experiences and on the knowledge gained through decades of feminist anti-violence activism.

    Failing to Achieve the Goal: A Feminist Perspective on Why Rape Law Reform in Taiwan Has been Unsuccessful CHIH-CHIEH LIN* ABSTRACT It has been more than ten years since feminists and legal scholars drove the first wave of rape law reform in Taiwan. Reform in the 1990s included the passage of the Anti-Rape Act and significant amendments to the Taiwanese Criminal Code … FEMINIST THEORY Examining Branches of Feminism Feminism Defined What follows are different branches of feminism theory that are recognized by feminists and feminist scholars. These different theories of feminism are widely acknowledged and taught in women's studies courses, gender studies courses, and the like. Often people have created their own definition of feminism …

    ° In terms of our common law, rape is committed by a man having intentional unlawful sexual intercourse with a woman without her consent. Non-consensual anal or oral penetration does not constitute rape in common law, although it can constitute indecent assault. Sexual intercourse is restricted to the penetration of the vagina by the penis. Criminal defense attorney and Georgetown Law professor Abbe Smith wrote a Law Review article last year about defending rape cases as a feminist, …

    (either for social roles or legal rights), and putative sex differences have been, and in some parts of the world continue to be, the basis of laws denying women the right to retain prop- erty in marriage and the right to vote. In Vindication of the Rights of Woman, Wollstonecraft wrote that many of the supposed FEMINIST THEORY Examining Branches of Feminism Feminism Defined What follows are different branches of feminism theory that are recognized by feminists and feminist scholars. These different theories of feminism are widely acknowledged and taught in women's studies courses, gender studies courses, and the like. Often people have created their own definition of feminism …

    Yale Journal of Law & Feminism A Critical R ace Feminist Perspective on Prostitution & Sex Trafick ing in America Cheryl Nelson Butler 0 SMU Dedman School of Law 0 0 This Article is brought to you for free and open access by Yale Law School Legal Scholarship Repository. while rape has been found to constitute torture in some very limited circumstances,3 rape remains a phenomenon in respect of which all legal systems appear to be incompetent. We are still searching for legal strategies to deal with rape. This article considers whether, in terms of feminist strategy, MacKinnon’s advocacy of ‘rape as torture’

    01/02/2007 · Sexual consent is an understudied and undertheorized concept despite its importance to feminist researchers and activists interested in sexual violence. Literature on consent, although sparse, has been produced from a variety of disciplines, including law, psychology, and sociology. This article is a critical review of current literature and ‘Freedom and capacity to make a choice’: A feminist analysis of consent in the criminal law of rape. In Sexuality and the law: Feminist engagements , ed. Vanessa Munro, and …

    rape law a feminist legal analysis m benson pdf

    FEMINIST THEORY Examining Branches of Feminism Feminism Defined What follows are different branches of feminism theory that are recognized by feminists and feminist scholars. These different theories of feminism are widely acknowledged and taught in women's studies courses, gender studies courses, and the like. Often people have created their own definition of feminism … American colonial law held that “by marriage, the husband and wife are one person in the law. The very being and legal existence of the woman is suspended during the . marriage, or at least is incorporated into that of her husband under whose wing and protection she performs everything.”