LAKES PONDS RIVERS AND STREAM PDF WORKSHEET



Lakes Ponds Rivers And Stream Pdf Worksheet

What is the difference between a lake a pond and a river. Request PDF On Jan 1, 2000, Tim Knight and others published The Biology of Lakes and Ponds Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate In rivers, as …, Mar 28, 2016- Explore brendalpotter11's board "Ponds, Rivers & Lakes", followed by 3854 people on Pinterest. See more ideas about Preschool crafts, Preschool art and Pond animals..

Streams Rivers Lakes and Ponds New York State

Bill Nye the Science Guy Rivers & Streams. Click on a river gauge to see real-time data for rivers. NOAA. NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas. Grade 2 ESS2.A: Earth Materials and Systems. Wind and water can change the shape of the land. (2-ESS2-1) ESS2.C: The Roles of Water in Earth's Surface Processes. Water is found in the ocean, rivers, lakes, and ponds. Water exists as solid ice and in, Rivers, Lakes, Streams, and Ponds numbers nutrients Ocean oxygen phytoplankton plankton pollen pollution ponds population predators prey rain forest region Rift Valley Lakes rivers and lakes rocks Salt Lake salty sediment sewage shrimps streams sturgeon surface survive swim tiny tributaries tropical trout turtle underwater water beetles.

This Rivers and Streams by Bill Nye Worksheet is suitable for 4th - 8th Grade. In this Bill Nye video worksheet, students watch "Rivers and Streams" and then respond to 8 fill in the blank, 8 word scramble, and 11 matching questions regarding the video. Rivers, Lakes, Streams, and Ponds numbers nutrients Ocean oxygen phytoplankton plankton pollen pollution ponds population predators prey rain forest region Rift Valley Lakes rivers and lakes rocks Salt Lake salty sediment sewage shrimps streams sturgeon surface survive swim tiny tributaries tropical trout turtle underwater water beetles

Request PDF On Jan 1, 2000, Tim Knight and others published The Biology of Lakes and Ponds Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate In rivers, as … This data displays the locations of top rivers, streams, lakes and ponds for fishing in New York State, as determined by fisheries biologists working for the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. These biologists recommended popular rivers, streams, lakes and ponds based on quality of fishing and public access. Data set was created based on their …

How to Care for Streams, Rivers, Ponds and Lakes: An overview of the best strategies for protecting these waterbodies and the species inhabiting them. Forestry Best Management Practices: Guidelines on how to protect fresh water supplies in your woodland. Fishing with Kids: How to get your little ones to fall for fishing — hook, line and sinker. –Lakes, rivers, ponds, streams o1% surface water o31% groundwater o68% icecaps and glaciers . What is a watershed? •the region or area drained by a river, stream, lake, ocean, or any body of water. Major Rivers & Watersheds in Texas . What is groundwater? •Groundwater consists of …

The quiz and worksheet are useful for seeing how much you know about lakes vs. ponds. If you want, you can study these differences any time you... Muhammad Ali — ‘Rivers, ponds, lakes and streams — they all have different names, but they all contain water. Just as religions do — they all contain tru...

Worksheet - Solar Heating in New York State *Editable* This worksheet can be used to review insolation and energy at Earth's surface. There is a brief description about solar collectors and solar heating, followed by a diagram of a solar collector on … Start studying Rivers, stream, lakes and ponds vocabulary. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

Learn term:freshwater ecosystems = rivers, streams, lakes, ponds with free interactive flashcards. Choose from 49 different sets of term:freshwater ecosystems = rivers, streams, lakes, ponds flashcards on Quizlet. River and Lake Activities & Fun Ideas for Kids. You have come to the right place if you are looking for fun, engaging and exciting Ponds, Rivers and Lake themed activities to do with toddlers, preschoolers and kindergartners. Our activities are used by teachers, moms, dads, child care providers and more! Moonlight Stream, Bateman River, etc

Reading Comprehensions The River with Two Names River Rats (Grades 1-3) My First Trip Down River (Grades 3-4) Flowing from a River Near You (Grades 3-4) Start studying Rivers, stream, lakes and ponds vocabulary. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

Map of North Carolina Lakes Streams and Rivers. Muhammad Ali — ‘Rivers, ponds, lakes and streams — they all have different names, but they all contain water. Just as religions do — they all contain tru..., Mar 28, 2016- Explore brendalpotter11's board "Ponds, Rivers & Lakes", followed by 3854 people on Pinterest. See more ideas about Preschool crafts, Preschool art and Pond animals..

What's the Difference? Rivers Streams Lakes and Ponds...

lakes ponds rivers and stream pdf worksheet

Lake vs. Pond Quiz & Worksheet for Kids Study.com. –5– ©Disney Sample Objectives for Blood and Circulation In this activity students will: Observe and describe a body system responsible for supply and transport. Use this information to define a body system. Ask questions about the circulatory system. Explain how structure complements function in organs of the circulatory system. Cite examples of current research related to this …, View Notes - watewr resource from ENVIRONMEN 214341 at Charles Sturt University (Ontario). Water Resource Includes, Water, rivers, streams, lakes, ponds, wetlands, flood plains, Water is ….

Rivers and Lakes Lesson Plans & Worksheets Reviewed by. Sep 20, 2005В В· Difference between a Pond vs. Lake - river vs. a creek ULTIMATE BASS BASS FISHING CLASSIFIED I had the same thoughts on what was a stream and what was a river and what was a creek. I always thought it was, a creek flows into another river, a river flows into a body of water. Rivers, sloughs, creeks, ponds, lakes, seas, as long as they, Lakes and ponds are characterized by three main habitats: the pelagic zone, the littoral zone, and the benthic zone. The pelagic zone is the open water area of lakes and ponds. In large lakes, the pelagic zone makes up most of the lake's volume. The littoral zone is the inshore area where light penetrates to the bottom..

Surface Waters Rivers Streams Lakes and Wetlands

lakes ponds rivers and stream pdf worksheet

The Nature of Teaching Discovering the Watershed Lesson Plan. A statewide map of North Carolina showing the major lakes, streams and rivers. Drought, precipitation, and stream gage information. North Carolina Rivers Shown on the Map: Black River, Broad River, Cape Fear River, Get updated North Carolina river … Find Streams and rivers lesson plans and worksheets. Showing 1 - 47 of 47 resources. Stream Table Students identify the characteristics of a healthy river and choose a nearby stream to analyze. They test the water quality and observe the health of plants and animals living in the immediate habitat. In this reading passage about lakes.

lakes ponds rivers and stream pdf worksheet

  • Rivers Streams Ponds and Lakes Testing Kit
  • Lakes and Ponds Program Mass.gov

  • –5– В©Disney Sample Objectives for Blood and Circulation In this activity students will: Observe and describe a body system responsible for supply and transport. Use this information to define a body system. Ask questions about the circulatory system. Explain how structure complements function in organs of the circulatory system. Cite examples of current research related to this … The Lakes and Ponds Worksheet – Download our educational and fun FREE printable find the words worksheet for kids.Our free printable worksheet all about lakes and ponds includes a fun hidden words puzzle along with a find the missing words game.

    From about rivers and lakes worksheets to lakes and rivers videos, quickly find teacher-reviewed educational resources. Students explore a stream in their area and show the class the topographic map of the stream. They locate the topographic map and name the streams, lakes and ponds in their watershed. habitats, and activities on rivers Lakes, Ponds and Rivers. Swan Lake is not very accessible to humans but provides good swan breeding habitat as a result. These lakes are the major source of food and breeding grounds for many of the birds of the refuge. They are fed mainly from Red Rock Creek, Odell Creek, Elk Springs Creek and Picnic Springs Creek.

    A lesson plan, explanation text and worksheet / activity on the features of a river during its different stages. Children are given statements about the width, speed etc of a river and asked to identify which stage of a river's journey they belong to.... A collective group of pictures and texts to be presented by Ryan Kimball and Gavin Betterman.

    Fun Facts about Lakes and Ponds for Kids. Lakes are often isolated places. Interesting animals and plants may evolve in lakes. Man-made lakes are known as reservoirs. People make ponds too. The largest lake in the world is the Caspian Sea in Kazakhstan. It is over 143,000 square miles in length and 3,363 feet deep. Feb 06, 2012В В· Lakes, Ponds and Rivers PaigeEnvSci101. Loading... Unsubscribe from PaigeEnvSci101? Licensed to YouTube by UMG (on behalf of Varese Sarabande Records); LatinAutor, UNIAO BRASILEIRA DE EDITORAS

    This data displays the locations of top rivers, streams, lakes and ponds for fishing in New York State, as determined by fisheries biologists working for the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. These biologists recommended popular rivers, streams, lakes and ponds based on quality of fishing and public access. Data set was created based on their … Aug 09, 2017 · There are technical specifications for pond vs lake, stream vs creek vs river. A pond is a body of water that has negligible flow to it and is less than 5 acres. A lake is also a body of water that has negligible flow to it (water entering is equa...

    Lakes and Ponds •Lakes, ponds, and wetlands can form naturally where the groundwater reaches the Earth’s surface. •Beavers can also create ponds by damming up streams. •Humans’ intentionally create artificial lakes by damming flowing rivers and streams to use them for power, irrigation, water storage, and recreation. Request PDF On Jan 1, 2000, Tim Knight and others published The Biology of Lakes and Ponds Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate In rivers, as …

    lakes, ponds and sluggish rivers. p umpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus Habitat: Cool, weedy ponds, small lakes and slow-moving streams. s mallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu Habitat: Clear, gravel-bottom runs in flowing rivers; shallow rocky areas of lakes. Walleye Sander vitreus Habitat: Cold, clear waters of lakes and streams. Prefers sand, gravel A lesson plan, explanation text and worksheet / activity on the features of a river during its different stages. Children are given statements about the width, speed etc of a river and asked to identify which stage of a river's journey they belong to....

    Rivers Lakes Streams and Ponds Richard Beatty

    lakes ponds rivers and stream pdf worksheet

    Rivers and Streams Lakes and Ponds by Ryan Kimball on Prezi. The Lakes and Ponds Program works primarily in the DCR State Park system to protect, manage and restore valuable aquatic resources. We also provide technical assistance to communities and citizen groups as well as provide educational materials to the public about lake issues., LESSON Aquatic and Marine Ecosystem onnections. 4H347. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age,.

    Map of North Carolina Lakes Streams and Rivers

    Streams and rivers Teacher Resources Lesson Planet. Learn term:freshwater ecosystems = rivers, streams, lakes, ponds with free interactive flashcards. Choose from 49 different sets of term:freshwater ecosystems = rivers, streams, lakes, ponds flashcards on Quizlet., AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS-FRESHWATER TYPES. They in clude lakes and ponds, rivers, stream s and The details of all publications are in the researchgate in full text pdf ….

    LESSON Aquatic and Marine Ecosystem onnections. 4H347. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, Start studying Rivers, stream, lakes and ponds vocabulary. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

    Lakes, rivers and streams. They are important to us for many reasons. They give us fresh water to drink. They are a home to fish and shore birds. They are also a method of transport. Take this quiz to test your knowledge on the water ways of the US … Types of Freshwater Biomes There are three main types of freshwater biomes: ponds and lakes, streams and rivers, and wetlands. We'll go into the details of each below. Ponds and Lakes Ponds and lakes are often called lentic ecosystems. This means that they have still or standing waters, not moving like rivers or streams.

    Plan a field trip to a nearby pond, river, or stream and make a list of common and endangered plant and animal species seen there. AKGROUND ASIS … Aquatic Ecosystems: Lakes, Springs, Rivers and Streams. Florida has an abundance of fresh water with more than 7,500 lakes (inland bodies of standing The quiz and worksheet are useful for seeing how much you know about lakes vs. ponds. If you want, you can study these differences any time you...

    This Rivers and Streams by Bill Nye Worksheet is suitable for 4th - 8th Grade. In this Bill Nye video worksheet, students watch "Rivers and Streams" and then respond to 8 fill in the blank, 8 word scramble, and 11 matching questions regarding the video. Aug 09, 2017В В· There are technical specifications for pond vs lake, stream vs creek vs river. A pond is a body of water that has negligible flow to it and is less than 5 acres. A lake is also a body of water that has negligible flow to it (water entering is equa...

    LESSON Aquatic and Marine Ecosystem onnections. 4H347. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, Ponds are important to the watershed connection. They capture rainwater as it flows over the ground, reducing erosion and flooding. By holding stormwater, ponds allow nutrients and other chemicals to be filtered from the water by plants and animals before it moves into rivers and lakes. Therefore, ponds can

    The quiz and worksheet are useful for seeing how much you know about lakes vs. ponds. If you want, you can study these differences any time you... Click on a river gauge to see real-time data for rivers. NOAA. NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas. Grade 2 ESS2.A: Earth Materials and Systems. Wind and water can change the shape of the land. (2-ESS2-1) ESS2.C: The Roles of Water in Earth's Surface Processes. Water is found in the ocean, rivers, lakes, and ponds. Water exists as solid ice and in

    A lesson plan, explanation text and worksheet / activity on the features of a river during its different stages. Children are given statements about the width, speed etc of a river and asked to identify which stage of a river's journey they belong to.... Ponds are important to the watershed connection. They capture rainwater as it flows over the ground, reducing erosion and flooding. By holding stormwater, ponds allow nutrients and other chemicals to be filtered from the water by plants and animals before it moves into rivers and lakes. Therefore, ponds can

    Fun Facts about Lakes and Ponds for Kids. Lakes are often isolated places. Interesting animals and plants may evolve in lakes. Man-made lakes are known as reservoirs. People make ponds too. The largest lake in the world is the Caspian Sea in Kazakhstan. It is over 143,000 square miles in length and 3,363 feet deep. Feb 06, 2012В В· Lakes, Ponds and Rivers PaigeEnvSci101. Loading... Unsubscribe from PaigeEnvSci101? Licensed to YouTube by UMG (on behalf of Varese Sarabande Records); LatinAutor, UNIAO BRASILEIRA DE EDITORAS

    –Lakes, rivers, ponds, streams o1% surface water o31% groundwater o68% icecaps and glaciers . What is a watershed? •the region or area drained by a river, stream, lake, ocean, or any body of water. Major Rivers & Watersheds in Texas . What is groundwater? •Groundwater consists of … A statewide map of Florida showing the major lakes, streams and rivers. Drought, precipitation, and stream gage information. Florida Lakes, Rivers and Water Resources. Florida Rivers Shown on the Map: Apalachicola River, Get updated Florida river and stream levels from USGS here.

    Aug 09, 2017В В· There are technical specifications for pond vs lake, stream vs creek vs river. A pond is a body of water that has negligible flow to it and is less than 5 acres. A lake is also a body of water that has negligible flow to it (water entering is equa... Ponds and Lakes Range of Precipitation -It also depends on the geographical location of the river and theIt season. Daintree River Range of Temperature in the Biomes vs. L.A.P Both Lakes and Rivers -Most of the water flowing in rivers comes from precipitation run-off from the

    Start studying Rivers, stream, lakes and ponds vocabulary. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Reading Comprehensions The River with Two Names River Rats (Grades 1-3) My First Trip Down River (Grades 3-4) Flowing from a River Near You (Grades 3-4)

    Ponds are important to the watershed connection. They capture rainwater as it flows over the ground, reducing erosion and flooding. By holding stormwater, ponds allow nutrients and other chemicals to be filtered from the water by plants and animals before it moves into rivers and lakes. Therefore, ponds can This data displays the locations of top rivers, streams, lakes and ponds for fishing in New York State, as determined by fisheries biologists working for the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. These biologists recommended popular rivers, streams, lakes and ponds based on quality of fishing and public access. Data set was created based on their …

    What's the Difference? Rivers Streams Lakes and Ponds...

    lakes ponds rivers and stream pdf worksheet

    Streams and Rivers. –Lakes, rivers, ponds, streams o1% surface water o31% groundwater o68% icecaps and glaciers . What is a watershed? •the region or area drained by a river, stream, lake, ocean, or any body of water. Major Rivers & Watersheds in Texas . What is groundwater? •Groundwater consists of …, 6 What to look for in an MSDS (Q and A) 1. Where do I find an overall product summary and emergency phone numbers? The chemical product and company identification section provides an overall product summary, including.

    The Effects of Human Activity on Surface and Groundwater. Rivers, Lakes, Streams, and Ponds numbers nutrients Ocean oxygen phytoplankton plankton pollen pollution ponds population predators prey rain forest region Rift Valley Lakes rivers and lakes rocks Salt Lake salty sediment sewage shrimps streams sturgeon surface survive swim tiny tributaries tropical trout turtle underwater water beetles, Click on a river gauge to see real-time data for rivers. NOAA. NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas. Grade 2 ESS2.A: Earth Materials and Systems. Wind and water can change the shape of the land. (2-ESS2-1) ESS2.C: The Roles of Water in Earth's Surface Processes. Water is found in the ocean, rivers, lakes, and ponds. Water exists as solid ice and in.

    River and Lake Activities & Fun Ideas for Kids ChildFun

    lakes ponds rivers and stream pdf worksheet

    What is the difference between a lake a pond and a river. Difference Between a Lake & a Pond: Lesson for Kids There are different types of bodies of water - oceans, rivers, bays, seas, canals, lakes, ponds, and so on. Quiz & Worksheet - Factors All About WATER SOURCES Book, Game, Posters & Worksheets Rivers, Lakes, Oceans This is a great 90 page unit on water sources (streams, rivers, ponds, lakes, and oceans). This set is perfect for your first grade or second grade students!.

    lakes ponds rivers and stream pdf worksheet


    Muhammad Ali — ‘Rivers, ponds, lakes and streams — they all have different names, but they all contain water. Just as religions do — they all contain tru... All About WATER SOURCES Book, Game, Posters & Worksheets Rivers, Lakes, Oceans This is a great 90 page unit on water sources (streams, rivers, ponds, lakes, and oceans). This set is perfect for your first grade or second grade students!

    lakes, ponds and sluggish rivers. p umpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus Habitat: Cool, weedy ponds, small lakes and slow-moving streams. s mallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu Habitat: Clear, gravel-bottom runs in flowing rivers; shallow rocky areas of lakes. Walleye Sander vitreus Habitat: Cold, clear waters of lakes and streams. Prefers sand, gravel Ponds and Lakes Range of Precipitation -It also depends on the geographical location of the river and theIt season. Daintree River Range of Temperature in the Biomes vs. L.A.P Both Lakes and Rivers -Most of the water flowing in rivers comes from precipitation run-off from the

    All About WATER SOURCES Book, Game, Posters & Worksheets Rivers, Lakes, Oceans This is a great 90 page unit on water sources (streams, rivers, ponds, lakes, and oceans). This set is perfect for your first grade or second grade students! Worksheet - Solar Heating in New York State *Editable* This worksheet can be used to review insolation and energy at Earth's surface. There is a brief description about solar collectors and solar heating, followed by a diagram of a solar collector on …

    All About WATER SOURCES Book, Game, Posters & Worksheets Rivers, Lakes, Oceans This is a great 90 page unit on water sources (streams, rivers, ponds, lakes, and oceans). This set is perfect for your first grade or second grade students! All About WATER SOURCES Book, Game, Posters & Worksheets Rivers, Lakes, Oceans This is a great 90 page unit on water sources (streams, rivers, ponds, lakes, and oceans). This set is perfect for your first grade or second grade students!

    Fun Facts about Lakes and Ponds for Kids. Lakes are often isolated places. Interesting animals and plants may evolve in lakes. Man-made lakes are known as reservoirs. People make ponds too. The largest lake in the world is the Caspian Sea in Kazakhstan. It is over 143,000 square miles in length and 3,363 feet deep. A statewide map of North Carolina showing the major lakes, streams and rivers. Drought, precipitation, and stream gage information. North Carolina Rivers Shown on the Map: Black River, Broad River, Cape Fear River, Get updated North Carolina river …

    A statewide map of Florida showing the major lakes, streams and rivers. Drought, precipitation, and stream gage information. Florida Lakes, Rivers and Water Resources. Florida Rivers Shown on the Map: Apalachicola River, Get updated Florida river and stream levels from USGS here. The Lakes and Ponds Program works primarily in the DCR State Park system to protect, manage and restore valuable aquatic resources. We also provide technical assistance to communities and citizen groups as well as provide educational materials to the public about lake issues.

    Find Streams and rivers lesson plans and worksheets. Showing 1 - 47 of 47 resources. Stream Table Students identify the characteristics of a healthy river and choose a nearby stream to analyze. They test the water quality and observe the health of plants and animals living in the immediate habitat. In this reading passage about lakes Sep 20, 2005В В· Difference between a Pond vs. Lake - river vs. a creek ULTIMATE BASS BASS FISHING CLASSIFIED I had the same thoughts on what was a stream and what was a river and what was a creek. I always thought it was, a creek flows into another river, a river flows into a body of water. Rivers, sloughs, creeks, ponds, lakes, seas, as long as they

    This data displays the locations of top rivers, streams, lakes and ponds for fishing in New York State, as determined by fisheries biologists working for the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. These biologists recommended popular rivers, streams, lakes and ponds based on quality of fishing and public access. Data set was created based on their … A statewide map of North Carolina showing the major lakes, streams and rivers. Drought, precipitation, and stream gage information. North Carolina Rivers Shown on the Map: Black River, Broad River, Cape Fear River, Get updated North Carolina river …

    6 What to look for in an MSDS (Q and A) 1. Where do I find an overall product summary and emergency phone numbers? The chemical product and company identification section provides an overall product summary, including Difference Between a Lake & a Pond: Lesson for Kids There are different types of bodies of water - oceans, rivers, bays, seas, canals, lakes, ponds, and so on. Quiz & Worksheet - Factors

    Difference Between a Lake & a Pond: Lesson for Kids There are different types of bodies of water - oceans, rivers, bays, seas, canals, lakes, ponds, and so on. Quiz & Worksheet - Factors These maps show the water quality classifications of New York’s lakes, rivers, streams and ponds, collectively referred to as water bodies. All water bodies in the state are provided a water quality classification based on existing, or expected best usage, of each water body or …

    From about rivers and lakes worksheets to lakes and rivers videos, quickly find teacher-reviewed educational resources. Students explore a stream in their area and show the class the topographic map of the stream. They locate the topographic map and name the streams, lakes and ponds in their watershed. habitats, and activities on rivers Muhammad Ali — ‘Rivers, ponds, lakes and streams — they all have different names, but they all contain water. Just as religions do — they all contain tru...

    Muhammad Ali — ‘Rivers, ponds, lakes and streams — they all have different names, but they all contain water. Just as religions do — they all contain tru... Aug 09, 2017 · There are technical specifications for pond vs lake, stream vs creek vs river. A pond is a body of water that has negligible flow to it and is less than 5 acres. A lake is also a body of water that has negligible flow to it (water entering is equa...

    Lakes and ponds are characterized by three main habitats: the pelagic zone, the littoral zone, and the benthic zone. The pelagic zone is the open water area of lakes and ponds. In large lakes, the pelagic zone makes up most of the lake's volume. The littoral zone is the inshore area where light penetrates to the bottom. A lesson plan, explanation text and worksheet / activity on the features of a river during its different stages. Children are given statements about the width, speed etc of a river and asked to identify which stage of a river's journey they belong to....

    lakes ponds rivers and stream pdf worksheet

    Difference Between a Lake & a Pond: Lesson for Kids There are different types of bodies of water - oceans, rivers, bays, seas, canals, lakes, ponds, and so on. Quiz & Worksheet - Factors AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS-FRESHWATER TYPES. They in clude lakes and ponds, rivers, stream s and The details of all publications are in the researchgate in full text pdf …