NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION PROCESSING TRANSPORT PDF



Natural Gas Production Processing Transport Pdf

Natural gas production processing transport. Pipelines used for transport of natural gas, LPG and hydrocarbon condensates PIPELINE CONTAMINATION CONTROL for the Oil & Gas Industry. 3 Excessive corrosion Erosion of pipeline and its components Production Plants Processing Plants Pig Receivers Compressor - Metering, LPG is found naturally in combination with other hydrocarbons, typically crude oil and natural gas. The LPG production process includes natural gas processing and oil refining. It is produced, liquefied through pressurisation and stored in pressure vessels..

Natural Gas Flaring Processing and Transportation

Natural gas a reliable source of energy - equinor.com. 15/12/2014 · Gaseous Hydrogen Production Natural gas processing 3.38 . Natural gas transport 5.02 . Natural gas pipeline transport mileage. miles 750 . Gaseous Hydrogen production via SMR 18.22 . California average electricity mix from eGRIDa ; Share of Natural Gas as feedstock ., LPG is found naturally in combination with other hydrocarbons, typically crude oil and natural gas. The LPG production process includes natural gas processing and oil refining. It is produced, liquefied through pressurisation and stored in pressure vessels..

petroleum and natural gas production, offshore petroleum and natural gas production, onshore natural gas processing, natural gas transmission compression, underground natural gas storage, liquefied natural gas (LNG) transport vessels, or onshore. asset classes such as LNG liquefaction facilities, gas processing capacity, natural gas underground storage formations, and crude oil pipelines. The high production case is highlighted by a doubling of U.S. LNG exports and the construction of a second major North-South crude oil pipeline transportation corridor. 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200

VOLUME I / EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT 879 7.4 Underground storage of natural gas flow rate (MSm 3 /d) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec daily consumption daily supply Fig. 1. Typical daily values for the consumption and supply of natural gas. emissions related to natural gas produced on the Norwegian Continental Shelf and delivered to Statoil’s main gas markets in the UK and Germany*. It provides an overview of methane and total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with offshore production, gas processing, subsea pipeline transportation to Europe, and final distribution

Natural gas from the Norwegian continental shelf is a reliable, clean and competitive source of energy. Gas is attractive from an environmental perspective too, as it emits between 50 and 65 per cent less CO 2 in electricity production than coal. asset classes such as LNG liquefaction facilities, gas processing capacity, natural gas underground storage formations, and crude oil pipelines. The high production case is highlighted by a doubling of U.S. LNG exports and the construction of a second major North-South crude oil pipeline transportation corridor. 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200

Natural Gas Production Processing Transport (Institut Franpcais Du Pbetrole Publications) [A. Rojey] on Amazon.com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Reviews all the stages of gas production and processing sequence from the reservoir to the reception terminal. Gives a comprehensive review of the available know-how together with a clear asset classes such as LNG liquefaction facilities, gas processing capacity, natural gas underground storage formations, and crude oil pipelines. The high production case is highlighted by a doubling of U.S. LNG exports and the construction of a second major North-South crude oil pipeline transportation corridor. 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200

Home; This edition; 1997, English, Book, Illustrated edition: Natural gas : production, processing, transport / Alexandre Rojey[et. al.]. Foreword by Robert N OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION HANDBOOK An introduction to oil and gas production Håvard Devold ABB . 5 Gas Processing and LNG natural gas or condensates. Also included are a number of utility systems, not part of the actual process, but providing energy,

Natural Gas Production Processing Transport (Institut Franpcais Du Pbetrole Publications) [A. Rojey] on Amazon.com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Reviews all the stages of gas production and processing sequence from the reservoir to the reception terminal. Gives a comprehensive review of the available know-how together with a clear Transport, Processing and Sales Costs. The primary cost components for natural gas in the US are the production costs and the cost to transport the gas to customers, with the relative importance of these two costs varying, depending on the consuming sector.

Liquid Hydrogen from North American Natural Gas

natural gas production processing transport pdf

Natural Gas Flaring Processing and Transportation. 26/ Feasibility Study of Liquefied Natural Gas Project for the "South-Par" Investment costs are 800 to 1200 dollars for production capacity of each ton per years; 50% is provided by the shareholders and 50% by the loans. The debt is 50% of total investment cost that financed by National, OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION HANDBOOK An introduction to oil and gas production Håvard Devold ABB . 5 Gas Processing and LNG natural gas or condensates. Also included are a number of utility systems, not part of the actual process, but providing energy,.

Natural Gas Production L N G Processing Plant YouTube

natural gas production processing transport pdf

Natural Gas Production L N G Processing Plant YouTube. OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION HANDBOOK An introduction to oil and gas production Håvard Devold ABB . 5 Gas Processing and LNG natural gas or condensates. Also included are a number of utility systems, not part of the actual process, but providing energy, Natural gas processing – 60% Crude oil refining – 40% Relative to crude oil and refined products, market size is small Global crude oil and gas liquids supply is 89-91 million BPD NGL/LPG is 13% of this NGL’s are getting more attention now: NGL’s are a growing source of revenue for gas producers NGL production ….

natural gas production processing transport pdf


emissions related to natural gas produced on the Norwegian Continental Shelf and delivered to Statoil’s main gas markets in the UK and Germany*. It provides an overview of methane and total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with offshore production, gas processing, subsea pipeline transportation to Europe, and final distribution OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION HANDBOOK An introduction to oil and gas production Håvard Devold ABB . 5 Gas Processing and LNG natural gas or condensates. Also included are a number of utility systems, not part of the actual process, but providing energy,

Natural Gas Production Processing Transport (Institut Franpcais Du Pbetrole Publications) [A. Rojey] on Amazon.com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Reviews all the stages of gas production and processing sequence from the reservoir to the reception terminal. Gives a comprehensive review of the available know-how together with a clear petroleum and natural gas production, offshore petroleum and natural gas production, onshore natural gas processing, natural gas transmission compression, underground natural gas storage, liquefied natural gas (LNG) transport vessels, or onshore.

Processing. Wet gas production requires more processing capacity for natural gas and more transportation capacity for NGL. In the Bakken, extraction of associated gas has been driven primarily by demand for tight oil, resulting in significant flaring when takeaway capacity and local use of associated natural gas and NGL is Figure 1. The LNG Process Chain - from Extraction, Processing and Transport, to Consumption (Source: BV 2009) About LNG Liquefied natural gas is natural gas, primarily composed of methane, which has been converted to liquid form for ease of storage and transport. LNG takes up about 1/600th the volume of natural gas.

Natural Gas 101: The Basics of Natural Gas Production, Transportation, and Markets David E. Dismukes, Ph.D. Center for Energy Studies Louisiana State University • Petroleum & natural gas formed from decomposing organic matter in “source rock” • Conventional –gas & liquids migrate through permeable rock toward the surface until it is stopped by some trapping mechanism • Unconventional –gas & liquids are trapped at the source rock because of extremely

Processing. Wet gas production requires more processing capacity for natural gas and more transportation capacity for NGL. In the Bakken, extraction of associated gas has been driven primarily by demand for tight oil, resulting in significant flaring when takeaway capacity and local use of associated natural gas and NGL is Home; This edition; 1997, English, Book, Illustrated edition: Natural gas : production, processing, transport / Alexandre Rojey[et. al.]. Foreword by Robert N

gatherers, gas processing, petroleum refining, natural gas distribution, and propane distribution— contributes 31.2% of the 2015 total jobs. The production segment— consisting of oil and gas production companies and their suppliers of goods and services— contributes the remaining 25.2% of 2015 total natural gas value chain jobs. Since market prices for natural gas and methanol vary considerably and depend on location and supply quantities, the production costs for hydrogen are shown for typical prices. If LPG or naph-tha is used instead of natural gas in the steam-refor-ming process, 0.78 kg LPG or 0.84 kg naphtha may be set against 1 Nm3 methane. For the other processing

natural gas production processing transport pdf

Pipelines move natural gas from production fields to markets. Natural gas transmission pipelines are wide-diameter pipelines and are often the long-distance portion of natural gas pipeline systems that connect gathering systems in producing areas, natural gas processing plants, other receipt points, and the main consumer service areas. gatherers, gas processing, petroleum refining, natural gas distribution, and propane distribution— contributes 31.2% of the 2015 total jobs. The production segment— consisting of oil and gas production companies and their suppliers of goods and services— contributes the remaining 25.2% of 2015 total natural gas value chain jobs.

Feasibility Study of Liquefied Natural Gas Project for the

natural gas production processing transport pdf

PIPELINE CONTAMINATION CONTROL Pall Corporation. assesses GHGs during the production, processing, transport, and use of natural gas and coal to generate electricity. Some studi es include not only the direct and indirect emissions from the plant or factory that provides or makes a certain product, but also the emissions, 26/ Feasibility Study of Liquefied Natural Gas Project for the "South-Par" Investment costs are 800 to 1200 dollars for production capacity of each ton per years; 50% is provided by the shareholders and 50% by the loans. The debt is 50% of total investment cost that financed by National.

Benefits and Opportunities of Natural Gas Use

Natural Gas Information pttplc.com. CHAPTER 10 - OIL AND GAS FIELD PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING OPERATIONS 9/3/99 10.2-2 EIIP Volume II confirm the presence of oil or gas and to determine whether the reserves are economically sufficient to support production. During production, crude oil and/or natural gas is recovered from wells and prepared for transportation from the field., Pipelines used for transport of natural gas, LPG and hydrocarbon condensates PIPELINE CONTAMINATION CONTROL for the Oil & Gas Industry. 3 Excessive corrosion Erosion of pipeline and its components Production Plants Processing Plants Pig Receivers Compressor - Metering.

Natural gas from the Norwegian continental shelf is a reliable, clean and competitive source of energy. Gas is attractive from an environmental perspective too, as it emits between 50 and 65 per cent less CO 2 in electricity production than coal. oil and natural gas sectors, including exploration, production, transport, storage, marketing, and sales. QP operates through joint ventures and subsidiaries. The gas processing industries in Qatar produce a variety of products, including fuels, chemicals, fertilizers, and petro-chemicals. Figure 3 shows the major gas conversion streams

VOLUME I / EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT 879 7.4 Underground storage of natural gas flow rate (MSm 3 /d) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec daily consumption daily supply Fig. 1. Typical daily values for the consumption and supply of natural gas. Context: As natural gas is typically produced in remote regions away from areas of high gas demand, natural gas transport is a critical part of the natural gas industry Le Fevre, C., Madden, M., White, N. « LNG in transportation 2015-2035 ».

15/12/2014 · Gaseous Hydrogen Production Natural gas processing 3.38 . Natural gas transport 5.02 . Natural gas pipeline transport mileage. miles 750 . Gaseous Hydrogen production via SMR 18.22 . California average electricity mix from eGRIDa ; Share of Natural Gas as feedstock . Context: As natural gas is typically produced in remote regions away from areas of high gas demand, natural gas transport is a critical part of the natural gas industry Le Fevre, C., Madden, M., White, N. « LNG in transportation 2015-2035 ».

Since market prices for natural gas and methanol vary considerably and depend on location and supply quantities, the production costs for hydrogen are shown for typical prices. If LPG or naph-tha is used instead of natural gas in the steam-refor-ming process, 0.78 kg LPG or 0.84 kg naphtha may be set against 1 Nm3 methane. For the other processing gas through the natural gas processing at the gas separation plants. Each of them has a wide variety of uses. -Pipe Natural Gas or natural gas that transport via pipeline, it is known in commercial term as Sale Gas. e.g. concert and movie production. The Use of Natural Gas . Co-generation is a production of electricity (mechanical power

19/06/2014 · Because pure natural gas is odorless, a sulfur-based compound with a rotten-egg smell is added before it is piped to homes so that leaks can be noticed easily. Natural gas transportation. The United States has an extensive and complex network of pipelines to transport natural gas from production areas to end users. CHAPTER 10 - OIL AND GAS FIELD PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING OPERATIONS 9/3/99 10.2-2 EIIP Volume II confirm the presence of oil or gas and to determine whether the reserves are economically sufficient to support production. During production, crude oil and/or natural gas is recovered from wells and prepared for transportation from the field.

gas through the natural gas processing at the gas separation plants. Each of them has a wide variety of uses. -Pipe Natural Gas or natural gas that transport via pipeline, it is known in commercial term as Sale Gas. e.g. concert and movie production. The Use of Natural Gas . Co-generation is a production of electricity (mechanical power An introduction to oil and gas production, transport, refining and petrochemical industry 5.3 Gas processing Chemicals derived from petroleum or natural gas – petrochemicals – are an essential part of the chemical industry today.

assesses GHGs during the production, processing, transport, and use of natural gas and coal to generate electricity. Some studi es include not only the direct and indirect emissions from the plant or factory that provides or makes a certain product, but also the emissions Pipelines used for transport of natural gas, LPG and hydrocarbon condensates PIPELINE CONTAMINATION CONTROL for the Oil & Gas Industry. 3 Excessive corrosion Erosion of pipeline and its components Production Plants Processing Plants Pig Receivers Compressor - Metering

oil and natural gas sectors, including exploration, production, transport, storage, marketing, and sales. QP operates through joint ventures and subsidiaries. The gas processing industries in Qatar produce a variety of products, including fuels, chemicals, fertilizers, and petro-chemicals. Figure 3 shows the major gas conversion streams Pipelines used for transport of natural gas, LPG and hydrocarbon condensates PIPELINE CONTAMINATION CONTROL for the Oil & Gas Industry. 3 Excessive corrosion Erosion of pipeline and its components Production Plants Processing Plants Pig Receivers Compressor - Metering

oil and natural gas sectors, including exploration, production, transport, storage, marketing, and sales. QP operates through joint ventures and subsidiaries. The gas processing industries in Qatar produce a variety of products, including fuels, chemicals, fertilizers, and petro-chemicals. Figure 3 shows the major gas conversion streams OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION HANDBOOK An introduction to oil and gas production Håvard Devold ABB . 5 Gas Processing and LNG natural gas or condensates. Also included are a number of utility systems, not part of the actual process, but providing energy,

of extracting or processing that petroleum or natural gas will exceed $30,000 per year, or • for both sale and the person’s own business use if there is a reasonable expectation that the total cost of extracting or processing that petroleum or natural gas will exceed $30,000 per year. gas through the natural gas processing at the gas separation plants. Each of them has a wide variety of uses. -Pipe Natural Gas or natural gas that transport via pipeline, it is known in commercial term as Sale Gas. e.g. concert and movie production. The Use of Natural Gas . Co-generation is a production of electricity (mechanical power

Natural gas processing – 60% Crude oil refining – 40% Relative to crude oil and refined products, market size is small Global crude oil and gas liquids supply is 89-91 million BPD NGL/LPG is 13% of this NGL’s are getting more attention now: NGL’s are a growing source of revenue for gas producers NGL production … Natural Gas Liquefaction TEP 10 – Gas Processing and LNG – Fall 2008 Example of ageing/weathering during LNG transport 40.25 40.3 40.35 40.4 40.45 40.5 40.55 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Day GCV (MJ/Sm³) Calculated ageing Natural gas cooling • Cooling of natural gas stream occurs

Natural gas from the Norwegian continental shelf is a reliable, clean and competitive source of energy. Gas is attractive from an environmental perspective too, as it emits between 50 and 65 per cent less CO 2 in electricity production than coal. emissions related to natural gas produced on the Norwegian Continental Shelf and delivered to Statoil’s main gas markets in the UK and Germany*. It provides an overview of methane and total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with offshore production, gas processing, subsea pipeline transportation to Europe, and final distribution

Minimizing greenhouse gas emissions

natural gas production processing transport pdf

Natural Gas Information pttplc.com. VOLUME I / EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT 879 7.4 Underground storage of natural gas flow rate (MSm 3 /d) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec daily consumption daily supply Fig. 1. Typical daily values for the consumption and supply of natural gas., CHAPTER 10 - OIL AND GAS FIELD PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING OPERATIONS 9/3/99 10.2-2 EIIP Volume II confirm the presence of oil or gas and to determine whether the reserves are economically sufficient to support production. During production, crude oil and/or natural gas is recovered from wells and prepared for transportation from the field..

Offshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production. Pipelines used for transport of natural gas, LPG and hydrocarbon condensates PIPELINE CONTAMINATION CONTROL for the Oil & Gas Industry. 3 Excessive corrosion Erosion of pipeline and its components Production Plants Processing Plants Pig Receivers Compressor - Metering, Natural Gas Processing Technology and Engineering Design Alireza Bahadori, Ph.D. School of Environment, Science and Engineering, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, Australia.

Hydrogen—what are the costs? Caloric Anlagenbau GmbH

natural gas production processing transport pdf

Feasibility Study of Liquefied Natural Gas Project for the. petroleum and natural gas production, offshore petroleum and natural gas production, onshore natural gas processing, natural gas transmission compression, underground natural gas storage, liquefied natural gas (LNG) transport vessels, or onshore. Natural gas processing – 60% Crude oil refining – 40% Relative to crude oil and refined products, market size is small Global crude oil and gas liquids supply is 89-91 million BPD NGL/LPG is 13% of this NGL’s are getting more attention now: NGL’s are a growing source of revenue for gas producers NGL production ….

natural gas production processing transport pdf

  • PIPELINE CONTAMINATION CONTROL Pall Corporation
  • Production Liquefaction and Transport of Low-Processed
  • Natural Gas Production Processing Transport (Institut

  • An introduction to oil and gas production, transport, refining and petrochemical industry 5.3 Gas processing Chemicals derived from petroleum or natural gas – petrochemicals – are an essential part of the chemical industry today. gas through the natural gas processing at the gas separation plants. Each of them has a wide variety of uses. -Pipe Natural Gas or natural gas that transport via pipeline, it is known in commercial term as Sale Gas. e.g. concert and movie production. The Use of Natural Gas . Co-generation is a production of electricity (mechanical power

    oil and natural gas sectors, including exploration, production, transport, storage, marketing, and sales. QP operates through joint ventures and subsidiaries. The gas processing industries in Qatar produce a variety of products, including fuels, chemicals, fertilizers, and petro-chemicals. Figure 3 shows the major gas conversion streams LPG is found naturally in combination with other hydrocarbons, typically crude oil and natural gas. The LPG production process includes natural gas processing and oil refining. It is produced, liquefied through pressurisation and stored in pressure vessels.

    26/ Feasibility Study of Liquefied Natural Gas Project for the "South-Par" Investment costs are 800 to 1200 dollars for production capacity of each ton per years; 50% is provided by the shareholders and 50% by the loans. The debt is 50% of total investment cost that financed by National CHAPTER 10 - OIL AND GAS FIELD PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING OPERATIONS 9/3/99 10.2-2 EIIP Volume II confirm the presence of oil or gas and to determine whether the reserves are economically sufficient to support production. During production, crude oil and/or natural gas is recovered from wells and prepared for transportation from the field.

    emissions related to natural gas produced on the Norwegian Continental Shelf and delivered to Statoil’s main gas markets in the UK and Germany*. It provides an overview of methane and total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with offshore production, gas processing, subsea pipeline transportation to Europe, and final distribution Natural Gas Liquefaction TEP 10 – Gas Processing and LNG – Fall 2008 Example of ageing/weathering during LNG transport 40.25 40.3 40.35 40.4 40.45 40.5 40.55 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Day GCV (MJ/Sm³) Calculated ageing Natural gas cooling • Cooling of natural gas stream occurs

    Natural gas from the Norwegian continental shelf is a reliable, clean and competitive source of energy. Gas is attractive from an environmental perspective too, as it emits between 50 and 65 per cent less CO 2 in electricity production than coal. asset classes such as LNG liquefaction facilities, gas processing capacity, natural gas underground storage formations, and crude oil pipelines. The high production case is highlighted by a doubling of U.S. LNG exports and the construction of a second major North-South crude oil pipeline transportation corridor. 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200

    Pipelines used for transport of natural gas, LPG and hydrocarbon condensates PIPELINE CONTAMINATION CONTROL for the Oil & Gas Industry. 3 Excessive corrosion Erosion of pipeline and its components Production Plants Processing Plants Pig Receivers Compressor - Metering Natural Gas Liquefaction TEP 10 – Gas Processing and LNG – Fall 2008 Example of ageing/weathering during LNG transport 40.25 40.3 40.35 40.4 40.45 40.5 40.55 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Day GCV (MJ/Sm³) Calculated ageing Natural gas cooling • Cooling of natural gas stream occurs

    Home; This edition; 1997, English, Book, Illustrated edition: Natural gas : production, processing, transport / Alexandre Rojey[et. al.]. Foreword by Robert N Transport, Processing and Sales Costs. The primary cost components for natural gas in the US are the production costs and the cost to transport the gas to customers, with the relative importance of these two costs varying, depending on the consuming sector.

    Natural Gas 101: The Basics of Natural Gas Production, Transportation, and Markets David E. Dismukes, Ph.D. Center for Energy Studies Louisiana State University gatherers, gas processing, petroleum refining, natural gas distribution, and propane distribution— contributes 31.2% of the 2015 total jobs. The production segment— consisting of oil and gas production companies and their suppliers of goods and services— contributes the remaining 25.2% of 2015 total natural gas value chain jobs.

    Transport, Processing and Sales Costs. The primary cost components for natural gas in the US are the production costs and the cost to transport the gas to customers, with the relative importance of these two costs varying, depending on the consuming sector. Natural Gas Production Processing Transport (Institut Franpcais Du Pbetrole Publications) [A. Rojey] on Amazon.com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Reviews all the stages of gas production and processing sequence from the reservoir to the reception terminal. Gives a comprehensive review of the available know-how together with a clear

    Home; This edition; 1997, English, Book, Illustrated edition: Natural gas : production, processing, transport / Alexandre Rojey[et. al.]. Foreword by Robert N OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION HANDBOOK An introduction to oil and gas production Håvard Devold ABB . 5 Gas Processing and LNG natural gas or condensates. Also included are a number of utility systems, not part of the actual process, but providing energy,

    Pipelines used for transport of natural gas, LPG and hydrocarbon condensates PIPELINE CONTAMINATION CONTROL for the Oil & Gas Industry. 3 Excessive corrosion Erosion of pipeline and its components Production Plants Processing Plants Pig Receivers Compressor - Metering emissions related to natural gas produced on the Norwegian Continental Shelf and delivered to Statoil’s main gas markets in the UK and Germany*. It provides an overview of methane and total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with offshore production, gas processing, subsea pipeline transportation to Europe, and final distribution

    Pipelines move natural gas from production fields to markets. Natural gas transmission pipelines are wide-diameter pipelines and are often the long-distance portion of natural gas pipeline systems that connect gathering systems in producing areas, natural gas processing plants, other receipt points, and the main consumer service areas. VOLUME I / EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT 879 7.4 Underground storage of natural gas flow rate (MSm 3 /d) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec daily consumption daily supply Fig. 1. Typical daily values for the consumption and supply of natural gas.

    OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION HANDBOOK An introduction to oil and gas production Håvard Devold ABB . 5 Gas Processing and LNG natural gas or condensates. Also included are a number of utility systems, not part of the actual process, but providing energy, gas through the natural gas processing at the gas separation plants. Each of them has a wide variety of uses. -Pipe Natural Gas or natural gas that transport via pipeline, it is known in commercial term as Sale Gas. e.g. concert and movie production. The Use of Natural Gas . Co-generation is a production of electricity (mechanical power

    natural gas production processing transport pdf

    Since market prices for natural gas and methanol vary considerably and depend on location and supply quantities, the production costs for hydrogen are shown for typical prices. If LPG or naph-tha is used instead of natural gas in the steam-refor-ming process, 0.78 kg LPG or 0.84 kg naphtha may be set against 1 Nm3 methane. For the other processing asset classes such as LNG liquefaction facilities, gas processing capacity, natural gas underground storage formations, and crude oil pipelines. The high production case is highlighted by a doubling of U.S. LNG exports and the construction of a second major North-South crude oil pipeline transportation corridor. 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200