SHEET METAL FORMING PROCESS PDF



Sheet Metal Forming Process Pdf

Chapter 16 Sheet-Metal Forming Processes Advantages Materials. Sheet Metal Forming 2.810 D. Cooper w Sheet Metal Forming Ch. 16 Kalpakjian w Design for Sheetmetal Working , Ch. 9 Boothroyd, Dewhurst and Knight . Examples-sheet metal formed . Female die Male die (punch/post) Metal sheet Blank holder (ring) on cushion Compressible cushion Sheet metal stamping/drawing – car industry •90million cars and commercial vehicles produced worldwide in 2014, Metal forming process - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Metal Forming process ….

Sheet metal forming – from the sheet metal to the finished

Sheet Metal Forming Process Engineering Articles. PDF In the article the changes associated with construction of machines used in die and die-less sheet metal forming have been presented. The selected future directions of development in new, 2010-02-25 · This video has been uploaded with kind permission of Sika Tooling & Composites. Its runs through the process for producing a low cost and effective metal sheet forming tool using a ….

Sheet Metal Cutting & Forming Processes-General-The raw material for sheet metal manufacturing processes is the output of the rolling process. Typically, sheets of metal are sold as flat, rectangular sheets of standard size. Therefore the first step in any sheet metal process is to cut the correct shape and sized ‘blank’from larger sheet. 2013-01-14 · Examples of the bending and the embossing of sheet metal with a metal punch and with a flexible pad serving as the female die.Lecture-05: Sheet Metal Forming Processes 34/21 22. Hydroform (or) Fluid Forming Process In hydroforming or fluid forming process, the pressure over the rubber membrane is controlled throughout the forming cycle, with maximum pressure reaching 100 MPa …

Sheet Metal Forming Basics. With the use of the industrial manufacturing process, sheet metal is formed by working metal into flat and thin pieces.Sheet metal is one of the very convenient ways that is used in metal working and it can be mended and cut into various shapes and dimensions. Figure 16.38 Examples of the bending and the embossing of sheet metal with a metal punch and with a flexible pad serving as the female die. Source: Polyurethane Products Corporation. Page 16-32 Hydroform Process ¾Also called fluid-forming process Pressure over the rubber membrane is controlled by a fluid Close control of the part during forming

Production techniques_sheet metal forming Mohsen Badrossamay 17 Dep. of Mech. Eng. Deep-drawing (a) Schematic illustration of the deep-drawing process on a circular sheet-metal blank. The stripper ring facilitates the removal of the formed cup from the punch. (b) Process variables in deep drawing. Except for the punch force, F, Bulge test due to creating plane stress condition on test sheet is extremely similar to sheet metal forming processes, such as hydroforming, stamping, and deep drawing. The results of the bulge test are more accurate and practical for analyzing the sheet forming process than tensile test. In multilayer sheets, the diverse properties of the constituent layers cause favorable properties on

Production techniques_sheet metal forming Mohsen Badrossamay 17 Dep. of Mech. Eng. Deep-drawing (a) Schematic illustration of the deep-drawing process on a circular sheet-metal blank. The stripper ring facilitates the removal of the formed cup from the punch. (b) Process variables in deep drawing. Except for the punch force, F, 3. Roll Forming Process. This process of sheet metal stamping design is opted for when there is a requirement for long parts that are needed with complex cross-sections. The benefit is that this process helps to produce a really good surface finish and it is also used when there is a need for high production rates. However, one of the most

Ironing is a sheet metal working or sheet metal forming process. It uniformly thins the workpiece in a specific area. This is a very useful process. It is used to produce a uniform wall thickness part with a high height-to-diameter ratio. It is used in making aluminium beverage cans. Laser cutting PDF In the article the changes associated with construction of machines used in die and die-less sheet metal forming have been presented. The selected future directions of development in new

Sheet metal forming involves a wide range of processes that manufacture parts for a vast amount of purposes, both seen and unseen. Sheet metal refers to metal that has a high surface area to volume ratio. Sheet metal work stock, used for sheet metal processes, is usually formed by rolling and comes in coils. Figure 16.38 Examples of the bending and the embossing of sheet metal with a metal punch and with a flexible pad serving as the female die. Source: Polyurethane Products Corporation. Page 16-32 Hydroform Process ¾Also called fluid-forming process Pressure over the rubber membrane is controlled by a fluid Close control of the part during forming

Measuring systems from GOM are used in stamping, bending, drawing, pressing, and forming process chains to guarantee consistent quality assurance: from determining the sheet metal properties, via accelerating tool try-out and first article inspection, up to series accompanying production control and assembly analysis. Sheet Metal Forming Processes and Die Design . This long-awaited new edition of a best-selling text and reference provides an expanded and more comprehensive treatment of sheet metal forming processes, while placing forming processes and die design in the broader context of …

sheetmetal-process.com Aluminium Baking Tray. Ironing is a sheet metal working or sheet metal forming process. It uniformly thins the workpiece in a specific area. This is a very useful process. It is used to produce a uniform wall thickness part with a high height-to-diameter ratio. It is used in making aluminium beverage cans. Laser cutting, Sheet Metal Forming: Fundamentals Edited by Taylan Altan and Erman Tekkaya 2012 Approx. 350 pages Sheet forming fundamentals are thoroughly addressed in this comprehensive reference for the practical and efficient use of sheet forming technologies. The principle variables of sheet forming—including the interactions between variables—are.

Sheet Metal Forming Processes UFL MAE

sheet metal forming process pdf

sheetmetal-process.com Aluminium Baking Tray. Sheet Metal Forming Processes and Die Design . This long-awaited new edition of a best-selling text and reference provides an expanded and more comprehensive treatment of sheet metal forming processes, while placing forming processes and die design in the broader context of …, - Physical phenomenon of the deep sheet metal forming of a dish As we said before, at the time of the sheet metal forming, the first part of the blank, which is in contact with the punch, is placed underneath the bottom of the punch. This part is pushed in the matrix, without being subjected to any deformations. On the other hand, the blank's.

Sheet Metal Forming Processes and Equipment MachineMfg.com

sheet metal forming process pdf

Sheet Metal Forming Processes Constitutive Modelling and. PDF In the article the changes associated with construction of machines used in die and die-less sheet metal forming have been presented. The selected future directions of development in new The book gives a synthetic presentation of the research performed in the field of sheet metal forming simulation during more than twenty years by the members of three teams: the Research Centre on Sheet Metal Forming – CERTETA (Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania); AUTOFORM software-house company from Zürich, Switzerland and VOLVO automotive company from Sweden..

sheet metal forming process pdf


Sheet Metal Forming Processes and Die Design . This long-awaited new edition of a best-selling text and reference provides an expanded and more comprehensive treatment of sheet metal forming processes, while placing forming processes and die design in the broader context of … Sheet Metal Forming: Fundamentals Edited by Taylan Altan and Erman Tekkaya 2012 Approx. 350 pages Sheet forming fundamentals are thoroughly addressed in this comprehensive reference for the practical and efficient use of sheet forming technologies. The principle variables of sheet forming—including the interactions between variables—are

Sheet Metal Forming Processes and Die Design . This long-awaited new edition of a best-selling text and reference provides an expanded and more comprehensive treatment of sheet metal forming processes, while placing forming processes and die design in the broader context of … Measuring systems from GOM are used in stamping, bending, drawing, pressing, and forming process chains to guarantee consistent quality assurance: from determining the sheet metal properties, via accelerating tool try-out and first article inspection, up to series accompanying production control and assembly analysis.

Sheet-metal Characteristics • Elongation – the capability of the sheet metal to stretch without necking and failure. • Yield-point elongation – Lüeder’s bands on Low-carbon steels and Al-Mg alloys. Lüder’s bands can be eliminated by cold-rolling the thickness by 0.5-1.5%. • Anisotropy Most sheet metal components are made by deep drawing, which requires expensive tooling. Although many new flexible forming processes have been invented, they have largely not had industrial application, so it would be valuable if intelligent means to design new processes existed.

The book gives a synthetic presentation of the research performed in the field of sheet metal forming simulation during more than twenty years by the members of three teams: the Research Centre on Sheet Metal Forming – CERTETA (Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania); AUTOFORM software-house company from Zürich, Switzerland and VOLVO automotive company from Sweden. Metal forming process - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Metal Forming process …

This practical and comprehensive reference gives the latest developments on the design of sheet forming operations, equipment, tooling, and process modeling. Individual chapters cover all major sheet forming processes such as blanking, bending, deep drawing, and more. Process modeling using finite element analysis is described in one chapter and discussed in all appropriate chapters. Most sheet metal components are made by deep drawing, which requires expensive tooling. Although many new flexible forming processes have been invented, they have largely not had industrial application, so it would be valuable if intelligent means to design new processes existed.

Innovative forming technologies. Incremental sheet metal forming; Shape rolling; Manufacturing of thin sheet metal materials; Electromagnetic forming; Processing of hybrid composites; StaBiFü® - new manufacturing process for small to medium quantities; Sensors and actuators in sheet metals; Processing of stainless steels; Forming of powder 2013-03-06 · Sheet MetalworkingForming on metal sheets, strips, and coils. The process is normally a cold working process using a set of punch and die. Bending - straining of a metal sheet to form an angle bend. Drawing - forming a sheet into a hollow or concave shape. Shearing - not a forming process but a cutting process. 5 6.

2013-01-14 · Examples of the bending and the embossing of sheet metal with a metal punch and with a flexible pad serving as the female die.Lecture-05: Sheet Metal Forming Processes 34/21 22. Hydroform (or) Fluid Forming Process In hydroforming or fluid forming process, the pressure over the rubber membrane is controlled throughout the forming cycle, with maximum pressure reaching 100 MPa … JF Sheet Metal Technology Co.,Ltd mainly for customers provide efficient and high-quality machinery automation equipment, precision parts and components, all kinds of metal parts and import and exportbusiness of the service, and provide complete sets of overall solutions to according to the customer demand.

SHEET-METAL FORMING PROCESSES

sheet metal forming process pdf

Sheet Metal Forming – жЏђдѕ›дё“дёљGOM三维光学扫描测量仪. sheet metal process is to cut the correct shape and sized ‘blank’ from larger sheet. Sheet metal forming processes Sheet metal processes can be broken down into two major classifications and one minor classification • Shearing processes -- processes which apply …, Sheet-metal Characteristics • Elongation – the capability of the sheet metal to stretch without necking and failure. • Yield-point elongation – Lüeder’s bands on Low-carbon steels and Al-Mg alloys. Lüder’s bands can be eliminated by cold-rolling the thickness by 0.5-1.5%. • Anisotropy.

(PDF) Advances in sheet metal forming technologies

Sheet Metal Forming Processes and Applications Google Books. Therefore, the transmitted energy causes the wire to explode, Researchers have found that the high-velocity forming process can improve the formability of a sheet metal having low formability, of metal forming processes, as a component of the virtual manufacturing process, has a very important contribution to the reduction of the lead time. The finite element method is currently the most widely used numerical procedure for sim-ulating sheet metal forming processes. The ….

cessing. Metal forming is the main method of making metal products and semi-finished products. More than 90% of smelt-ed metal is processed by different methods of metal forming. Plastic properties of metals are used during the process of metal forming. That is the ability to change without damage the Sheet Metal Blanking Process: The sheet metal blanking process is a one of the shearing operation. Blanking process is cutting process obtain in sheet metal in which sheet metal piece is removed from the large piece of stock by shearing force applied in the sheet metal.

The forming limit diagram is a useful reference for sheet metal manufacturers. Sheet Metal Classification . There are 3 major classes of processes of sheet metal working. Cutting: Cutting is the use of shearing forces to remove material from a work piece. Technically not a metal forming process, but of extreme industrial importance. Innovative forming technologies. Incremental sheet metal forming; Shape rolling; Manufacturing of thin sheet metal materials; Electromagnetic forming; Processing of hybrid composites; StaBiFü® - new manufacturing process for small to medium quantities; Sensors and actuators in sheet metals; Processing of stainless steels; Forming of powder

JF Sheet Metal Technology Co.,Ltd mainly for customers provide efficient and high-quality machinery automation equipment, precision parts and components, all kinds of metal parts and import and exportbusiness of the service, and provide complete sets of overall solutions to according to the customer demand. Sheet Metal Forming 2.810 D. Cooper w Sheet Metal Forming Ch. 16 Kalpakjian w Design for Sheetmetal Working , Ch. 9 Boothroyd, Dewhurst and Knight . Examples-sheet metal formed . Female die Male die (punch/post) Metal sheet Blank holder (ring) on cushion Compressible cushion Sheet metal stamping/drawing – car industry •90million cars and commercial vehicles produced worldwide in 2014

Ironing is a sheet metal working or sheet metal forming process. It uniformly thins the workpiece in a specific area. This is a very useful process. It is used to produce a uniform wall thickness part with a high height-to-diameter ratio. It is used in making aluminium beverage cans. Laser cutting JF Sheet Metal Technology Co.,Ltd mainly for customers provide efficient and high-quality machinery automation equipment, precision parts and components, all kinds of metal parts and import and exportbusiness of the service, and provide complete sets of overall solutions to according to the customer demand.

The book gives a synthetic presentation of the research performed in the field of sheet metal forming simulation during more than twenty years by the members of three teams: the Research Centre on Sheet Metal Forming – CERTETA (Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania); AUTOFORM software-house company from Zürich, Switzerland and VOLVO automotive company from Sweden. Cost comparison for manufacturing a round sheet- metal container either by conventional spinning or by deep drawing. Note that for small quantities, spinning is more economical. P.S: we just prepared you the PDF version of the sheet metal forming process, you can download it here.

• Peen Forming –surface of sheet metal is exposed to compressive stresses • Laser forming and laser assisted forming • Gas and liquified gases mixtures as energy source • Electrohydraulic forming • Magnetic-Pulse Forming (a) Schematic illustration of the magnetic-pulse forming process used to form a tube over a plug. (b) Aluminum tube Most sheet metal components are made by deep drawing, which requires expensive tooling. Although many new flexible forming processes have been invented, they have largely not had industrial application, so it would be valuable if intelligent means to design new processes existed.

2013-01-14 · Examples of the bending and the embossing of sheet metal with a metal punch and with a flexible pad serving as the female die.Lecture-05: Sheet Metal Forming Processes 34/21 22. Hydroform (or) Fluid Forming Process In hydroforming or fluid forming process, the pressure over the rubber membrane is controlled throughout the forming cycle, with maximum pressure reaching 100 MPa … Sheet Metal Forming 2.810 D. Cooper w Sheet Metal Forming Ch. 16 Kalpakjian w Design for Sheetmetal Working , Ch. 9 Boothroyd, Dewhurst and Knight . Examples-sheet metal formed . Female die Male die (punch/post) Metal sheet Blank holder (ring) on cushion Compressible cushion Sheet metal stamping/drawing – car industry •90million cars and commercial vehicles produced worldwide in 2014

2010-02-25 · This video has been uploaded with kind permission of Sika Tooling & Composites. Its runs through the process for producing a low cost and effective metal sheet forming tool using a … Cost comparison for manufacturing a round sheet- metal container either by conventional spinning or by deep drawing. Note that for small quantities, spinning is more economical. P.S: we just prepared you the PDF version of the sheet metal forming process, you can download it here.

Sheet metal forming involves a wide range of processes that manufacture parts for a vast amount of purposes, both seen and unseen. Sheet metal refers to metal that has a high surface area to volume ratio. Sheet metal work stock, used for sheet metal processes, is usually formed by rolling and comes in coils. PDF In the article the changes associated with construction of machines used in die and die-less sheet metal forming have been presented. The selected future directions of development in new

sheet metal forming, currently, an effective approach of computer-aided tolerance analysis is still not fully developed, and hence there is no comprehensive method to integrate design and process planning. The organization of this review is that, at first sheet metal forming operations are Sheet Metal Forming Basics. With the use of the industrial manufacturing process, sheet metal is formed by working metal into flat and thin pieces.Sheet metal is one of the very convenient ways that is used in metal working and it can be mended and cut into various shapes and dimensions.

2013-03-06 · Sheet MetalworkingForming on metal sheets, strips, and coils. The process is normally a cold working process using a set of punch and die. Bending - straining of a metal sheet to form an angle bend. Drawing - forming a sheet into a hollow or concave shape. Shearing - not a forming process but a cutting process. 5 6. Spinning, sometimes called spin forming, is a metal forming process used to form cylindrical parts by rotating a piece of sheet metal while forces are applied to one side. A sheet metal disc is rotated at high speeds while rollers press the sheet against a tool, called a mandrel, to form the shape of the desired part. Spun metal parts have a

PDF In the article the changes associated with construction of machines used in die and die-less sheet metal forming have been presented. The selected future directions of development in new cessing. Metal forming is the main method of making metal products and semi-finished products. More than 90% of smelt-ed metal is processed by different methods of metal forming. Plastic properties of metals are used during the process of metal forming. That is the ability to change without damage the

Sheet Metal Forming Processes UFL MAE

sheet metal forming process pdf

Automatic design of sheet metal forming processes by “un. Sheet metal forming involves a wide range of processes that manufacture parts for a vast amount of purposes, both seen and unseen. Sheet metal refers to metal that has a high surface area to volume ratio. Sheet metal work stock, used for sheet metal processes, is usually formed by rolling and comes in coils., Bulge test due to creating plane stress condition on test sheet is extremely similar to sheet metal forming processes, such as hydroforming, stamping, and deep drawing. The results of the bulge test are more accurate and practical for analyzing the sheet forming process than tensile test. In multilayer sheets, the diverse properties of the constituent layers cause favorable properties on.

Sheet Metal Forming Processes UFL MAE. Innovative forming technologies. Incremental sheet metal forming; Shape rolling; Manufacturing of thin sheet metal materials; Electromagnetic forming; Processing of hybrid composites; StaBiFü® - new manufacturing process for small to medium quantities; Sensors and actuators in sheet metals; Processing of stainless steels; Forming of powder, cessing. Metal forming is the main method of making metal products and semi-finished products. More than 90% of smelt-ed metal is processed by different methods of metal forming. Plastic properties of metals are used during the process of metal forming. That is the ability to change without damage the.

Sheet Metal Forming Processes and Equipment MachineMfg.com

sheet metal forming process pdf

Automatic design of sheet metal forming processes by “un. - Physical phenomenon of the deep sheet metal forming of a dish As we said before, at the time of the sheet metal forming, the first part of the blank, which is in contact with the punch, is placed underneath the bottom of the punch. This part is pushed in the matrix, without being subjected to any deformations. On the other hand, the blank's The forming limit diagram is a useful reference for sheet metal manufacturers. Sheet Metal Classification . There are 3 major classes of processes of sheet metal working. Cutting: Cutting is the use of shearing forces to remove material from a work piece. Technically not a metal forming process, but of extreme industrial importance..

sheet metal forming process pdf


Figure 16.38 Examples of the bending and the embossing of sheet metal with a metal punch and with a flexible pad serving as the female die. Source: Polyurethane Products Corporation. Page 16-32 Hydroform Process ¾Also called fluid-forming process Pressure over the rubber membrane is controlled by a fluid Close control of the part during forming Sheet-metal Characteristics • Elongation – the capability of the sheet metal to stretch without necking and failure. • Yield-point elongation – Lüeder’s bands on Low-carbon steels and Al-Mg alloys. Lüder’s bands can be eliminated by cold-rolling the thickness by 0.5-1.5%. • Anisotropy

sheet metal forming, currently, an effective approach of computer-aided tolerance analysis is still not fully developed, and hence there is no comprehensive method to integrate design and process planning. The organization of this review is that, at first sheet metal forming operations are Sheet Metal Forming 2.810 D. Cooper w Sheet Metal Forming Ch. 16 Kalpakjian w Design for Sheetmetal Working , Ch. 9 Boothroyd, Dewhurst and Knight . Examples-sheet metal formed . Female die Male die (punch/post) Metal sheet Blank holder (ring) on cushion Compressible cushion Sheet metal stamping/drawing – car industry •90million cars and commercial vehicles produced worldwide in 2014

The book gives a synthetic presentation of the research performed in the field of sheet metal forming simulation during more than twenty years by the members of three teams: the Research Centre on Sheet Metal Forming – CERTETA (Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania); AUTOFORM software-house company from Zürich, Switzerland and VOLVO automotive company from Sweden. FUNDAMENTALS OF METAL FORMING •Overview of Metal Forming •Material Behavior in Metal Forming •Temperature in Metal Forming •Strain Rate Sensitivity •Friction and Lubrication in Metal Forming ©2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M. P. Groover, “Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 2/e” Metal Forming Large group of manufacturing processes in which plastic deformation is used to change

Ironing is a sheet metal working or sheet metal forming process. It uniformly thins the workpiece in a specific area. This is a very useful process. It is used to produce a uniform wall thickness part with a high height-to-diameter ratio. It is used in making aluminium beverage cans. Laser cutting Production techniques_sheet metal forming Mohsen Badrossamay 17 Dep. of Mech. Eng. Deep-drawing (a) Schematic illustration of the deep-drawing process on a circular sheet-metal blank. The stripper ring facilitates the removal of the formed cup from the punch. (b) Process variables in deep drawing. Except for the punch force, F,

Figure 16.38 Examples of the bending and the embossing of sheet metal with a metal punch and with a flexible pad serving as the female die. Source: Polyurethane Products Corporation. Page 16-32 Hydroform Process ¾Also called fluid-forming process Pressure over the rubber membrane is controlled by a fluid Close control of the part during forming Cost comparison for manufacturing a round sheet- metal container either by conventional spinning or by deep drawing. Note that for small quantities, spinning is more economical. P.S: we just prepared you the PDF version of the sheet metal forming process, you can download it here.

sheet metal process is to cut the correct shape and sized ‘blank’ from larger sheet. Sheet metal forming processes Sheet metal processes can be broken down into two major classifications and one minor classification • Shearing processes -- processes which apply … Sheet-metal Characteristics • Elongation – the capability of the sheet metal to stretch without necking and failure. • Yield-point elongation – Lüeder’s bands on Low-carbon steels and Al-Mg alloys. Lüder’s bands can be eliminated by cold-rolling the thickness by 0.5-1.5%. • Anisotropy

The aspects related to the implementation of the constitutive models in finite-element codes are discussed in the last chapter of the book. The performances of the models are proved by the numerical simulation of various sheet metal forming processes: hydroforming, deep-drawing and forming of the complex parts. The book is useful for the 2013-01-14 · Examples of the bending and the embossing of sheet metal with a metal punch and with a flexible pad serving as the female die.Lecture-05: Sheet Metal Forming Processes 34/21 22. Hydroform (or) Fluid Forming Process In hydroforming or fluid forming process, the pressure over the rubber membrane is controlled throughout the forming cycle, with maximum pressure reaching 100 MPa …

The book gives a synthetic presentation of the research performed in the field of sheet metal forming simulation during more than twenty years by the members of three teams: the Research Centre on Sheet Metal Forming – CERTETA (Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania); AUTOFORM software-house company from Zürich, Switzerland and VOLVO automotive company from Sweden. Production techniques_sheet metal forming Mohsen Badrossamay 17 Dep. of Mech. Eng. Deep-drawing (a) Schematic illustration of the deep-drawing process on a circular sheet-metal blank. The stripper ring facilitates the removal of the formed cup from the punch. (b) Process variables in deep drawing. Except for the punch force, F,

This practical and comprehensive reference gives the latest developments on the design of sheet forming operations, equipment, tooling, and process modeling. Individual chapters cover all major sheet forming processes such as blanking, bending, deep drawing, and more. Process modeling using finite element analysis is described in one chapter and discussed in all appropriate chapters. Production techniques_sheet metal forming Mohsen Badrossamay 17 Dep. of Mech. Eng. Deep-drawing (a) Schematic illustration of the deep-drawing process on a circular sheet-metal blank. The stripper ring facilitates the removal of the formed cup from the punch. (b) Process variables in deep drawing. Except for the punch force, F,

sheet metal forming, currently, an effective approach of computer-aided tolerance analysis is still not fully developed, and hence there is no comprehensive method to integrate design and process planning. The organization of this review is that, at first sheet metal forming operations are Metal forming process - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Metal Forming process …

sheet metal forming process pdf

Sheet Metal Forming: Fundamentals Edited by Taylan Altan and Erman Tekkaya 2012 Approx. 350 pages Sheet forming fundamentals are thoroughly addressed in this comprehensive reference for the practical and efficient use of sheet forming technologies. The principle variables of sheet forming—including the interactions between variables—are Sheet-metal Characteristics • Elongation – the capability of the sheet metal to stretch without necking and failure. • Yield-point elongation – Lüeder’s bands on Low-carbon steels and Al-Mg alloys. Lüder’s bands can be eliminated by cold-rolling the thickness by 0.5-1.5%. • Anisotropy