PREDICTING ASR AGGREGATE REACTIVITY IN TERMS OF ITS ACTIVATION ENERGY



Predicting Asr Aggregate Reactivity In Terms Of Its Activation Energy

What is the significance of activation energy for a. Prediction of ions migration behavior in mortar under 2-D ALMT application to inhibit ASR electrochemical;alkali-silica reaction;ALMT;lithium; This study investigated four electric field configurations of two-dimensional accelerate lithium migration technique (ALMT), including line-to-line, plane-to-line, contour-to-line and plane-to-plane, and analyzed the ion migration behavior and efficiency., Learn activation energy chemical reactions with free interactive flashcards. Choose from 500 different sets of activation energy chemical reactions flashcards on Quizlet..

Hassan Ghanem Google Scholar Citations

Is activation energy related to reactivity? Chemistry. steps. In step 1, determination of aggregate ASR composite activation energy (CAE) and threshold alkalinity (THA) by using a rapid aggregate chemical test called volumetric change measuring device (VCMD) is performed. The lower the CAE the higher the reactivity is. …, Nov 11, 2013 · Why does a higher activation energy usually mean a slower reaction? Doesn't activation energy just tell us whether or not a reaction will take place or not based on if the particles have enough energy to meet the activation barrier? How is it related to the rate of the reaction? Because, generally.

Predicting ASR aggregate reactivity in terms of its activation energy. Surface energy measurement of asphalt and its application to predicting fatigue and healing in asphalt mixtures. Use of surface free energy properties of the asphalt-aggregate system to predict moisture damage potential. Predicting ASR aggregate reactivity in terms of its activation energy. Determination of the main parameters of alkali silica reaction using system identification method. H Ghanem, D Zollinger, R Lytton. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 22 (9), Determining aggregate reactivity in …

This laboratory exercise satisfies procedure #12 of the 22 recommended procedures for AP Chemistry. This protocol utilizes methods of integrated rate law to determine… AP Chem Lab: 12 Determiation of the Rate of a Reaction Its Order and Its Activation Energy in AP Chemistry on Vimeo Learn activation energy chemical reactions with free interactive flashcards. Choose from 500 different sets of activation energy chemical reactions flashcards on Quizlet.

Feb 03, 2011 · The reaction shown below has rate constant values for the reaction of NOCl of 9.3x10-6 s-1 at 350 K and 6.9x10-4 s-1 at 400 K. Calculate the activation energy for the reaction. 2NOCl(g) - … Oct 15, 2014 · A kinetic-based ASR aggregate classification system A kinetic-based ASR aggregate classification system Liu, Kai-Wei; Mukhopadhyay, Anal K. 2014-10-15 00:00:00 •The CAE measurement is rapid and reliable.•The aggregates that belong to false positive and negative categories are identified.•The CAE measurement has the ability to test field aggregates.•The CAE measurement can …

In this presentation the two types of alkali-aggregate reaction – ASR and ACR will de defined. As ASR is more widespread and better understood – the focus of the presentation will be on the background and history of ASR – with information on the mechanisms and the contributing factors (such as the source of the alkalis and the Apr 29, 2015 · External catalysis of chemical reactions is done using catalysts, which stabilize the intermediate and lower the activation energy. As in the previous example, the reaction rate increases as the activation energy decreases. One of the most common examples for the catalysts in our body are proteins called enzymes. Without the help of enzymes

The Arrhenius equation allows us to calculate activation energies if the rate constant is known, or vice versa. As well, it mathematically expresses the relationships we established earlier: as activation energy term E a increases, the rate constant k decreases and therefore the rate of reaction decreases. Determining the Activation Energy Feb 02, 2015В В· It simply won't roll uphill on its own. The only way this can happen is to put in a huge amount of effort or energy to push it up. As soon as we stop pushing, the boulder rolls back down the hill

An attempt has been made to introduce the dilatometer test method as a part of a performance-based testing protocol for predicting potential ASR aggregate reactivity in terms of activation energy. Predicting ASR aggregate reactivity in terms of its activation energy. Surface energy measurement of asphalt and its application to predicting fatigue and healing in asphalt mixtures. Use of surface free energy properties of the asphalt-aggregate system to predict moisture damage potential.

Robert Lytton Texas A&M University (TAMU) Scholar

predicting asr aggregate reactivity in terms of its activation energy

A kinetic-based ASR aggregate classification system. Feb 06, 2008 · Variation of the rate constant with temperature for the first-order reaction 2N2O5(g) -> 2N2O4(g) + O2(g) is given in the following table. Determine graphically the activation energy for …, Activation energy is the amount of energy that needs to be supplied in order for a chemical reaction to proceed. The example problem below demonstrates how to determine the activation energy of a reaction from reaction rate constants at different temperatures..

What is the activation energy of a reaction? Quora

predicting asr aggregate reactivity in terms of its activation energy

DEVELOPMENT OF A REACTION SIGNATURE FOR COMBINED. Start studying Chapter 3 Bios Activation energy. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Feb 03, 2011 · The reaction shown below has rate constant values for the reaction of NOCl of 9.3x10-6 s-1 at 350 K and 6.9x10-4 s-1 at 400 K. Calculate the activation energy for the reaction. 2NOCl(g) - ….

predicting asr aggregate reactivity in terms of its activation energy


Jun 30, 2018 · Ea is the activation energy R is the universal costant of gases T is the absolute temperature Hence highter is the activation energy, lower is the rate of the reaction Normally if the activation energy is more than about 10Kcal/mol the reaction cannot occurr if you don't use a catalyst Predicting potential ASR aggregate reactivity in terms of its activation energy In analytical chemistry, activation energy ( E a ) is defined as the minimum energy required to …

An attempt has been made to introduce the dilatometer test method as a part of a performance-based testing protocol for predicting potential ASR aggregate reactivity in terms of activation energy. Determination of the apparent activation energy of concrete carbonation. Authors; Authors and affiliations G Hassan, Z Dan, L Robert. Predicting ASR Aggregate Reactivity in Terms of Its Activation Energy [J]. B Duthoit. Determination of the Apparent Activation Energy of One Concrete by Calorimetric and Mechanical Means Influence of a

Using Apparent Activation Energy as a Reactivity Criterion for Biomass Pyrolysis Marion Carrier,*,† Lidia Auret,‡ Anthony Bridgwater,† and Johannes H. Knoetze‡ †Bioenergy Research Group, European Bioenergy Research Institute (EBRI), Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, United Kingdom ‡Process Engineering, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602 Stellenbosch, South Sep 07, 2016 · Activation energy is the minimum energy required for a chemical reaction to occur, that is, for the bonds within reactants to break and for new bonds to form (the products). This chemical reaction is classified as being either exothermic (thermal

Feb 06, 2008 · Variation of the rate constant with temperature for the first-order reaction 2N2O5(g) -> 2N2O4(g) + O2(g) is given in the following table. Determine graphically the activation energy for … May 16, 2017 · All molecules possess a certain minimum amount of energy. The energy can be in the form of kinetic energy or potential energy. When molecules collide, the kinetic energy of the molecules can be used to stretch, bend, and ultimately break bonds, le...

ACTIVATION ENERGY AND CATALYSIS Introduction • For a reaction to occur, molecules must collide. The frequency of the collisions affects the rate of the reaction. The frequency can be changed by a. increasing or decreasing the concentrations of the reactants b. Measurement of Apparent Activation Energy of Portland Cement *Coarse aggregate was not used for testing for Ea, fine aggregate was not used in for isothermal conduction calorimetry testing, ¾University of Florida Department of Civil and Coastal Engineering …

DEVELOPMENT OF A REACTION SIGNATURE FOR COMBINED CONCRETE MATERIALS A Dissertation by aggregate can be characterized in terms of its activation energy (Ea) using the Arrhenius Predicting Potential ASR Aggregate Reactivity in Terms of Their Predicting potential ASR aggregate reactivity in terms of its activation energy In analytical chemistry, activation energy ( E a ) is defined as the minimum energy required to …

Strain energy theorems – Slopes and deflection of beams, frames and trusses utilizing principle of virtual work. Ghanem, H.A., Zollinger, D and Lytton, L., (2010) “Predicting ASR Aggregate Reactivity in Terms of its Activation Energy D and Lytton, L., (2010) “Determination of the Main Parameters of Alkali Silica Reaction using The Arrhenius equation allows us to calculate activation energies if the rate constant is known, or vice versa. As well, it mathematically expresses the relationships we established earlier: as activation energy term E a increases, the rate constant k decreases and therefore the rate of reaction decreases. Determining the Activation Energy

Lytton Robert Texas A&M University Academia.edu

predicting asr aggregate reactivity in terms of its activation energy

ASTM C1778 19a Standard Guide for Reducing the Risk of. Prediction of ions migration behavior in mortar under 2-D ALMT application to inhibit ASR electrochemical;alkali-silica reaction;ALMT;lithium; This study investigated four electric field configurations of two-dimensional accelerate lithium migration technique (ALMT), including line-to-line, plane-to-line, contour-to-line and plane-to-plane, and analyzed the ion migration behavior and efficiency., May 16, 2017В В· All molecules possess a certain minimum amount of energy. The energy can be in the form of kinetic energy or potential energy. When molecules collide, the kinetic energy of the molecules can be used to stretch, bend, and ultimately break bonds, le....

Activation Energy in Chemical Reactions

Activation Energy and the Arrhenius Equation. Oct 15, 2014 · A kinetic-based ASR aggregate classification system A kinetic-based ASR aggregate classification system Liu, Kai-Wei; Mukhopadhyay, Anal K. 2014-10-15 00:00:00 •The CAE measurement is rapid and reliable.•The aggregates that belong to false positive and negative categories are identified.•The CAE measurement has the ability to test field aggregates.•The CAE measurement can …, Activation energy is the amount of energy that needs to be supplied in order for a chemical reaction to proceed. The example problem below demonstrates how to determine the activation energy of a reaction from reaction rate constants at different temperatures..

The Arrhenius equation allows us to calculate activation energies if the rate constant is known, or vice versa. As well, it mathematically expresses the relationships we established earlier: as activation energy term E a increases, the rate constant k decreases and therefore the rate of reaction decreases. Determining the Activation Energy steps. In step 1, determination of aggregate ASR composite activation energy (CAE) and threshold alkalinity (THA) by using a rapid aggregate chemical test called volumetric change measuring device (VCMD) is performed. The lower the CAE the higher the reactivity is. …

Nov 11, 2013В В· Why does a higher activation energy usually mean a slower reaction? Doesn't activation energy just tell us whether or not a reaction will take place or not based on if the particles have enough energy to meet the activation barrier? How is it related to the rate of the reaction? Because, generally Activation energy is the amount of energy that needs to be supplied in order for a chemical reaction to proceed. The example problem below demonstrates how to determine the activation energy of a reaction from reaction rate constants at different temperatures.

The reactivity of chemically isolated lignocellulosic blocks, namely, α-cellulose, holocellulose, and lignin, has been rationalized on the basis of the dependence of the effective activation energy (Eα) upon conversion (α) determined via the popular isoconversional kinetic analysis, Friedman’s method. First of all, a detailed procedure for the thermogravimetric data preparation, kinetic If by reactivity you mean that the reaction is very exothermic, i.e. free energy is large and negative, $\Delta G < 0$ then there is generally no way to precisely predict how big the activation barrier will be.

Where can I find typical values of the Arrhenius activation energy for arbitrary reactions? I only want to have orders of magnitude estimates, but so far I have not been able to find any good resource that lists activation energies for different types of reactions. The Activation Energy (E a) - is the energy level that the reactant molecules must overcome before a reaction can occur. You probably remember from CHM1045 endothermic and exothermic reactions: In order to calculate the activation energy we need an equation that relates the rate constant of a reaction with the temperature (energy) of the system.

Where can I find typical values of the Arrhenius activation energy for arbitrary reactions? I only want to have orders of magnitude estimates, but so far I have not been able to find any good resource that lists activation energies for different types of reactions. Jun 30, 2018В В· Ea is the activation energy R is the universal costant of gases T is the absolute temperature Hence highter is the activation energy, lower is the rate of the reaction Normally if the activation energy is more than about 10Kcal/mol the reaction cannot occurr if you don't use a catalyst

Predicting ASR aggregate reactivity in terms of its activation energy. Surface energy measurement of asphalt and its application to predicting fatigue and healing in asphalt mixtures. Use of surface free energy properties of the asphalt-aggregate system to predict moisture damage potential. Predicting ASR aggregate reactivity in terms of its activation energy more by Lytton, Robert Alkali-silica reaction has become in concrete structures a growing and annoying problem for engineers, contractors and government agencies.

Predicting ASR aggregate reactivity in terms of its activation energy. Determination of the main parameters of alkali silica reaction using system identification method. H Ghanem, D Zollinger, R Lytton. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 22 (9), Determining aggregate reactivity in … Predicting ASR aggregate reactivity in terms of its activation energy more by Lytton, Robert Alkali-silica reaction has become in concrete structures a growing and annoying problem for engineers, contractors and government agencies.

Development of a method to measure the mechanical behavior of ASR gels. Part I: Literature Study; Alkali-silica reaction, causes, effects and prevention, Internal publication TU Delft. Predicting ASR aggregate reactivity in terms of its activation energy." Construction and Building Materials 24(7): 1101-1108. cataclastic rocks and their This laboratory exercise satisfies procedure #12 of the 22 recommended procedures for AP Chemistry. This protocol utilizes methods of integrated rate law to determine… AP Chem Lab: 12 Determiation of the Rate of a Reaction Its Order and Its Activation Energy in AP Chemistry on Vimeo

Predicting ASR aggregate reactivity in terms of its activation energy more by Lytton, Robert Alkali-silica reaction has become in concrete structures a growing and annoying problem for engineers, contractors and government agencies. C1778-19a Standard Guide for Reducing the Risk of Deleterious Alkali-Aggregate Reaction in Concrete construction~ alkali-aggregate reactions~ alkali-carbonate reactions~ alkali-silica reaction~ volumetric expansion~ supplementary cementitious materials~

Feb 06, 2008 · Variation of the rate constant with temperature for the first-order reaction 2N2O5(g) -> 2N2O4(g) + O2(g) is given in the following table. Determine graphically the activation energy for … May 16, 2017 · All molecules possess a certain minimum amount of energy. The energy can be in the form of kinetic energy or potential energy. When molecules collide, the kinetic energy of the molecules can be used to stretch, bend, and ultimately break bonds, le...

Jun 30, 2018В В· Ea is the activation energy R is the universal costant of gases T is the absolute temperature Hence highter is the activation energy, lower is the rate of the reaction Normally if the activation energy is more than about 10Kcal/mol the reaction cannot occurr if you don't use a catalyst Jul 01, 2010В В· Predicting ASR aggregate reactivity in terms of its activation energy Predicting ASR aggregate reactivity in terms of its activation energy Ghanem, Hassan; Zollinger, Dan; Lytton, Robert 2010-07-01 00:00:00 Alkali-silica reaction has become in concrete structures a growing and annoying problem for engineers, contractors and government agencies.

Learn activation energy chemical reactions with free interactive flashcards. Choose from 500 different sets of activation energy chemical reactions flashcards on Quizlet. Using Apparent Activation Energy as a Reactivity Criterion for Biomass Pyrolysis Marion Carrier,*,† Lidia Auret,‡ Anthony Bridgwater,† and Johannes H. Knoetze‡ †Bioenergy Research Group, European Bioenergy Research Institute (EBRI), Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, United Kingdom ‡Process Engineering, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602 Stellenbosch, South

Measurement of Apparent Activation Energy of Portland

predicting asr aggregate reactivity in terms of its activation energy

What is the activation energy of a reaction? Quora. Determination of the apparent activation energy of concrete carbonation. Authors; Authors and affiliations G Hassan, Z Dan, L Robert. Predicting ASR Aggregate Reactivity in Terms of Its Activation Energy [J]. B Duthoit. Determination of the Apparent Activation Energy of One Concrete by Calorimetric and Mechanical Means Influence of a, Jul 01, 2010В В· Predicting ASR aggregate reactivity in terms of its activation energy Predicting ASR aggregate reactivity in terms of its activation energy Ghanem, Hassan; Zollinger, Dan; Lytton, Robert 2010-07-01 00:00:00 Alkali-silica reaction has become in concrete structures a growing and annoying problem for engineers, contractors and government agencies..

Lytton Robert Texas A&M University Academia.edu

predicting asr aggregate reactivity in terms of its activation energy

Prediction of ions migration behavior in mortar under 2-D. Learn activation energy chemical reactions with free interactive flashcards. Choose from 500 different sets of activation energy chemical reactions flashcards on Quizlet. Development of a method to measure the mechanical behavior of ASR gels. Part I: Literature Study; Alkali-silica reaction, causes, effects and prevention, Internal publication TU Delft. Predicting ASR aggregate reactivity in terms of its activation energy." Construction and Building Materials 24(7): 1101-1108. cataclastic rocks and their.

predicting asr aggregate reactivity in terms of its activation energy


Start studying Chapter 3 Bios Activation energy. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Using Apparent Activation Energy as a Reactivity Criterion for Biomass Pyrolysis Marion Carrier,*,† Lidia Auret,‡ Anthony Bridgwater,† and Johannes H. Knoetze‡ †Bioenergy Research Group, European Bioenergy Research Institute (EBRI), Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, United Kingdom ‡Process Engineering, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602 Stellenbosch, South

DEVELOPMENT OF A REACTION SIGNATURE FOR COMBINED CONCRETE MATERIALS A Dissertation by aggregate can be characterized in terms of its activation energy (Ea) using the Arrhenius Predicting Potential ASR Aggregate Reactivity in Terms of Their Strain energy theorems – Slopes and deflection of beams, frames and trusses utilizing principle of virtual work. Ghanem, H.A., Zollinger, D and Lytton, L., (2010) “Predicting ASR Aggregate Reactivity in Terms of its Activation Energy D and Lytton, L., (2010) “Determination of the Main Parameters of Alkali Silica Reaction using

Jul 01, 2010В В· Predicting ASR aggregate reactivity in terms of its activation energy Predicting ASR aggregate reactivity in terms of its activation energy Ghanem, Hassan; Zollinger, Dan; Lytton, Robert 2010-07-01 00:00:00 Alkali-silica reaction has become in concrete structures a growing and annoying problem for engineers, contractors and government agencies. Sirivivatnanon, V, Mohammadi, J & South, W 2016, 'Reliability of new Australian test methods in predicting alkali silica reaction of field concrete in the identification of aggregate reactivity for ASR potential. headed shear stud connectors in foamed and lightweight aggregate concrete in terms of their ultimate loads, stiffness and

Predicting ASR aggregate reactivity in terms of its activation energy. contractors and owners to identify and measure the potential for concrete pavement degradation because of ASR. Results indicate that the activation energy concept of ASR can be seen as a useful parameter and has the potential of playing the role of a screening parameter Predicting ASR aggregate reactivity in terms of its activation energy Results indicate that the activation energy concept of ASR can be seen as a useful parameter and has the potential of

Predicting ASR aggregate reactivity in terms of its activation energy. Determination of the main parameters of alkali silica reaction using system identification method. H Ghanem, D Zollinger, R Lytton. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 22 (9), Determining aggregate reactivity in … May 16, 2017 · All molecules possess a certain minimum amount of energy. The energy can be in the form of kinetic energy or potential energy. When molecules collide, the kinetic energy of the molecules can be used to stretch, bend, and ultimately break bonds, le...

Apr 29, 2015В В· External catalysis of chemical reactions is done using catalysts, which stabilize the intermediate and lower the activation energy. As in the previous example, the reaction rate increases as the activation energy decreases. One of the most common examples for the catalysts in our body are proteins called enzymes. Without the help of enzymes Nov 11, 2013В В· Why does a higher activation energy usually mean a slower reaction? Doesn't activation energy just tell us whether or not a reaction will take place or not based on if the particles have enough energy to meet the activation barrier? How is it related to the rate of the reaction? Because, generally

Apr 29, 2015В В· External catalysis of chemical reactions is done using catalysts, which stabilize the intermediate and lower the activation energy. As in the previous example, the reaction rate increases as the activation energy decreases. One of the most common examples for the catalysts in our body are proteins called enzymes. Without the help of enzymes Feb 02, 2015В В· It simply won't roll uphill on its own. The only way this can happen is to put in a huge amount of effort or energy to push it up. As soon as we stop pushing, the boulder rolls back down the hill

The reactivity of chemically isolated lignocellulosic blocks, namely, α-cellulose, holocellulose, and lignin, has been rationalized on the basis of the dependence of the effective activation energy (Eα) upon conversion (α) determined via the popular isoconversional kinetic analysis, Friedman’s method. First of all, a detailed procedure for the thermogravimetric data preparation, kinetic Development of a method to measure the mechanical behavior of ASR gels. Part I: Literature Study; Alkali-silica reaction, causes, effects and prevention, Internal publication TU Delft. Predicting ASR aggregate reactivity in terms of its activation energy." Construction and Building Materials 24(7): 1101-1108. cataclastic rocks and their

Using Apparent Activation Energy as a Reactivity Criterion for Biomass Pyrolysis Marion Carrier,*,† Lidia Auret,‡ Anthony Bridgwater,† and Johannes H. Knoetze‡ †Bioenergy Research Group, European Bioenergy Research Institute (EBRI), Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, United Kingdom ‡Process Engineering, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602 Stellenbosch, South Measurement of Apparent Activation Energy of Portland Cement *Coarse aggregate was not used for testing for Ea, fine aggregate was not used in for isothermal conduction calorimetry testing, ¾University of Florida Department of Civil and Coastal Engineering …

Predicting ASR aggregate reactivity in terms of its activation energy. Surface energy measurement of asphalt and its application to predicting fatigue and healing in asphalt mixtures. Use of surface free energy properties of the asphalt-aggregate system to predict moisture damage potential. Predicting ASR aggregate reactivity in terms of its activation energy. Determination of the main parameters of alkali silica reaction using system identification method. H Ghanem, D Zollinger, R Lytton. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 22 (9), Determining aggregate reactivity in …

Jun 30, 2018В В· Ea is the activation energy R is the universal costant of gases T is the absolute temperature Hence highter is the activation energy, lower is the rate of the reaction Normally if the activation energy is more than about 10Kcal/mol the reaction cannot occurr if you don't use a catalyst An attempt has been made to introduce the dilatometer test method as a part of a performance-based testing protocol for predicting potential ASR aggregate reactivity in terms of activation energy.

C1778-19a Standard Guide for Reducing the Risk of Deleterious Alkali-Aggregate Reaction in Concrete construction~ alkali-aggregate reactions~ alkali-carbonate reactions~ alkali-silica reaction~ volumetric expansion~ supplementary cementitious materials~ Using Apparent Activation Energy as a Reactivity Criterion for Biomass Pyrolysis Marion Carrier,*,† Lidia Auret,‡ Anthony Bridgwater,† and Johannes H. Knoetze‡ †Bioenergy Research Group, European Bioenergy Research Institute (EBRI), Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, United Kingdom ‡Process Engineering, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602 Stellenbosch, South

Using Apparent Activation Energy as a Reactivity Criterion for Biomass Pyrolysis Marion Carrier,*,† Lidia Auret,‡ Anthony Bridgwater,† and Johannes H. Knoetze‡ †Bioenergy Research Group, European Bioenergy Research Institute (EBRI), Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, United Kingdom ‡Process Engineering, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602 Stellenbosch, South DEVELOPMENT OF A REACTION SIGNATURE FOR COMBINED CONCRETE MATERIALS A Dissertation by aggregate can be characterized in terms of its activation energy (Ea) using the Arrhenius Predicting Potential ASR Aggregate Reactivity in Terms of Their

TY - JOUR. T1 - Improving road transport operations through lean thinking: a case study. AU - Villarreal, B. AU - Garza-Reyes, J. A. AU - Kumar, V. Feasibility study for application of lean principles Mount Lebanon Application of Lean Principles to OBJECTIVE To apply Plan/Do/Study/Act (PDSA) cycles methodology to lumbar posterior instrumented fusion (PIF) using lean principles to create a standard work flow, identify waste, remove intraoperative variability, and examine feasibility among pilot cases. METHODS Process maps for 5 PIF