FUNCTIONAL GROUPS IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY PDF



Functional Groups In Organic Chemistry Pdf

2.9 Organic Functional Groups Chemistry LibreTexts. from Organic Chemistry by Robert C. Neuman, Jr. Professor of Chemistry, (C=O) is one of the most important functional groups in organic chemistry. We have already described (Chapter 13) ketones, aldehydes and carboxylic acids more comfortable with …, Priority table of functional groups of organic chemistry www.vaxasoftware.com Formula Function Sufix (main function) Prefix (secondary function).

Alkanes cycloalkanes and functional groups Khan Academy

Unit 11 Organic Chemistry. Organic Chemistry Functional Groups. Hydrocarbons provide the basic _____ unit for all molecules found in organic and biochemistry. The chemical and physical behavior of hydrocarbons can be _____ considerably by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms with functional groups made of other _____ (O, N, S, P, CHAPTER 12. DECODING ORGANIC STRUCTURES: THE FUNCTIONAL GROUPS Functional Groups: The Key To Understanding Organic Molecules Since life on this planet is based on compounds of the element carbon, the study of these compounds, called organic chemistry, is an important area of chemistry.The ability of carbon to form single or multiple.

17/07/2018В В· This video tutorial provides a basic introduction into organic chemistry. Here is a list of topics: 1. How to draw lewis structures of organic compounds 2. Identifying functional groups - alkanes, alkenes, & alkynes 3. Formal charge calculations 4. Resonance structures 5. Basic IUPAC nomenclature of alkanes Subscribe: https://www 15/12/2009В В· The most comprehensive work in functional groups available as a fully searchable online reference resource. Covers all aspects of the chemistry of functional groups, including: physical organic chemistry, analytical chemistry and techniques, reaction mechanisms, chapters on synthetic pathways, reactions and strategies as well as applications in

15/12/2009В В· The most comprehensive work in functional groups available as a fully searchable online reference resource. Covers all aspects of the chemistry of functional groups, including: physical organic chemistry, analytical chemistry and techniques, reaction mechanisms, chapters on synthetic pathways, reactions and strategies as well as applications in Chemistry Notes, Chemistry Gifts, Teaching Chemistry, Chemistry Class, College Notes, College Tips, A Level Biology, Functional Groups Organic Chemistry, Medical Student Humor. More information. Saved by. Penn State Science. 41. Organic Chemistry Chart Pdf Organic Division Information - - jpeg

Chemistry 11 – Functional Groups Notes So far we have investigated hydrocarbon alkanes and have found that this particular group has limited uses and properties. If all organic molecules were alkanes, then organic chemistry would be useless and boring! Luckily, specific groups of atoms are found on organic molecules, which give the molecules Organic Chemistry Functional Groups. Hydrocarbons provide the basic _____ unit for all molecules found in organic and biochemistry. The chemical and physical behavior of hydrocarbons can be _____ considerably by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms with functional groups made of other _____ (O, N, S, P

25/07/2018В В· Organic compounds can also be classified on the basis of functional groups into families or homologous series. 1. Functional group. The functional group can be defined as an atom or a group of atoms that are joined together in a specific manner which is responsible for the characteristic chemical properties of organic compounds. Organic Chemistry Functional Groups. Hydrocarbons provide the basic _____ unit for all molecules found in organic and biochemistry. The chemical and physical behavior of hydrocarbons can be _____ considerably by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms with functional groups made of other _____ (O, N, S, P

18/09/2019 · However, it remains a substantial challenge to endow multivariate materials with internal sequences and controllable apportionments. Herein, we introduce a novel strategy to manipulate the apportionment of functional groups in multivariate metal–organic frameworks (MTV-MOFs) by preincorporating interlocked linkers into framework materials. Functional groups are groups of atoms found within molecules that are involved in the chemical reactions characteristic of those molecules. Functional groups can pertain to any molecules, but you will usually hear about them in the context of organic chemistry.

Previously, we considered several kinds of hydrocarbons. Now we examine some of the many organic compounds that contain functional groups. We first introduced the idea of the functional group, a specific structural arrangement of atoms or bonds that imparts a characteristic chemical reactivity to the molecule. Organic Compounds: hydrocarbons and derivatives just C and H C, H, N, O, X, etc Note: groups can rotate about a C-C single bond (Пѓ only), but not a C=C double (Пѓ + ПЂ)! Organic Functional Group List Functional Group Compound Prefix/Suffix Example

14.1 Organic Compounds with Functional Groups Chemistry. Organic Chemistry Functional Groups. Hydrocarbons provide the basic _____ unit for all molecules found in organic and biochemistry. The chemical and physical behavior of hydrocarbons can be _____ considerably by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms with functional groups made of other _____ (O, N, S, P, Book:Functional groups in Organic Chemistry The in-house PDF rendering service has been withdrawn. An independent open source renderer MediaWiki2LaTeX is available. For Help with downloading a Wikipedia page as a PDF, see Functional groups in Organic Chemistry Functional group Acetal Acetoxy group Acetylide Activating group Acyl azide.

Functional group Wikipedia

functional groups in organic chemistry pdf

Sufix Prefix Formula Function (main function) (secondary. Functional groups are groups of atoms found within molecules that are involved in the chemical reactions characteristic of those molecules. Functional groups can pertain to any molecules, but you will usually hear about them in the context of organic chemistry., 03/08/2009В В· Outlines an introductory organic chemistry curriculum based on the reactions of functional groups. Reactions of functional groups: An approach for the basic course in organic chemistry Journal of Chemical Education.

Reactions of functional groups An approach for the basic

functional groups in organic chemistry pdf

2.9 Organic Functional Groups Chemistry LibreTexts. In organic chemistry it is very common to see molecules comprised mainly of a carbon backbone with functional groups attached to the chain. The functional group gives the molecule its properties, regardless of what molecule contains it*; they are centers of chemical reactivity. The functional groups within a molecule need to be identified when 25/07/2018В В· Organic compounds can also be classified on the basis of functional groups into families or homologous series. 1. Functional group. The functional group can be defined as an atom or a group of atoms that are joined together in a specific manner which is responsible for the characteristic chemical properties of organic compounds..

functional groups in organic chemistry pdf


03/08/2009 · Outlines an introductory organic chemistry curriculum based on the reactions of functional groups. Reactions of functional groups: An approach for the basic course in organic chemistry Journal of Chemical Education 2 Structural Organic Chemistry. The Shapes of Molecules. Functional Groups Line structures also can be modified to represent the three-dimensional shapes of molecules, and the way that this is done will be discussed in detail in Chapter 5. At the onset of …

– Functional Group – portion of a compound that has a characteristic arrangement of atoms and characteristic properties and reactivity. • Functional Groups are the key to understanding organic chemistry! Functional Group Formula Structure Properties Alkane C-C and C-H single bonds Alkene R2-CCC=C-R2 Alkyne R-C C-R' Alcohol R-OH Organic Compounds: hydrocarbons and derivatives just C and H C, H, N, O, X, etc Note: groups can rotate about a C-C single bond (σ only), but not a C=C double (σ + π)! Organic Functional Group List Functional Group Compound Prefix/Suffix Example

18/09/2019 · However, it remains a substantial challenge to endow multivariate materials with internal sequences and controllable apportionments. Herein, we introduce a novel strategy to manipulate the apportionment of functional groups in multivariate metal–organic frameworks (MTV-MOFs) by preincorporating interlocked linkers into framework materials. convention for naming your files: Lastname1 Lastname2 Functional Groups for a group report or Lastname Firstname Functional Groups for an individual report. If you are emailing the report, use a subject line of Chem 1062: Functional Groups Lab. *Portions of this experiment were adapted from Lehman, J.W., Operational Organic Chemistry, Upper Saddle

Chemistry 11 – Functional Groups Notes So far we have investigated hydrocarbon alkanes and have found that this particular group has limited uses and properties. If all organic molecules were alkanes, then organic chemistry would be useless and boring! Luckily, specific groups of atoms are found on organic molecules, which give the molecules 1.7 FUNCTIONAL GROUPS Certain combinations of bonds show up repeatedly in organic chemistry and organic chemists give those bonding combinations specific names. It is very useful to know the names of those specific types of bonds. Examples are shown below and you should make flash cards and learn them by heart.

1 Introduction to Organic Chemistry Unit 1: Importance of Functional Groups By the end of this unit you should be able to: • convert a Lewis structure of an … 17/07/2018 · This video tutorial provides a basic introduction into organic chemistry. Here is a list of topics: 1. How to draw lewis structures of organic compounds 2. Identifying functional groups - alkanes, alkenes, & alkynes 3. Formal charge calculations 4. Resonance structures 5. Basic IUPAC nomenclature of alkanes Subscribe: https://www

Previously, we considered several kinds of hydrocarbons. Now we examine some of the many organic compounds that contain functional groups. We first introduced the idea of the functional group, a specific structural arrangement of atoms or bonds that imparts a characteristic chemical reactivity to the molecule. An Introduction to Functional Groups in Organic Chemistry What are Functional Groups Functional groups are common bonding patterns found in organic molecules Examples C O H CH3 C O HO CH3 an aldehyde a carboxylic acid 2 Li + 2 H 2O в†’2 LiOH + H 2 2 Na + 2 H 2O в†’2 NaOH + H 2 2 K + 2 H 2O в†’2 KOH + H 2 Reactivity of Functional Groups C O H

Functional groups are groups of atoms found within molecules that are involved in the chemical reactions characteristic of those molecules. Functional groups can pertain to any molecules, but you will usually hear about them in the context of organic chemistry. Organic Chemistry #1 9 E. Functional Groups • A functional group is an atom or a group of atoms within a molecule that have characteristic physical properties and are often the sites of chemical reactivity. It determines all of the following properties of a molecule: o Bonding and shape o Type and strength of intermolecular forces

Organic Unit 1- Functional Groups Instruct

functional groups in organic chemistry pdf

Organic Functional Groups sciencegeek.net. Previously, we considered several kinds of hydrocarbons. Now we examine some of the many organic compounds that contain functional groups. We first introduced the idea of the functional group, a specific structural arrangement of atoms or bonds that imparts a characteristic chemical reactivity to the molecule., 18/09/2019 · However, it remains a substantial challenge to endow multivariate materials with internal sequences and controllable apportionments. Herein, we introduce a novel strategy to manipulate the apportionment of functional groups in multivariate metal–organic frameworks (MTV-MOFs) by preincorporating interlocked linkers into framework materials..

PATAI'S Chemistry of Functional Groups Major Reference Works

2.9 Organic Functional Groups Chemistry LibreTexts. Functional Groups are groups of atoms in organic molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. In the general formulae below ‘R’ represents a hydrocarbon or hydrogen and ‘X’ represents any halogen atom., Functional Group Priority Chart to help you rank and name organic chemistry functional groups. Print or download and save to your computer or phone by Leah4sci.

functional groups in organic chemistry functional groups are groups of atoms in organic molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. in the general formulae below, ‘r’ represents a hydrocarbon group or … Organic Functional Groups. Identify the organic class to which the compound belongs. Show all questions <= => ? alcohol ? aldehyde ? amine ? carboxylic acid ? ester ? ether ? halide ? ketone ? alcohol ? aldehyde ? amine ?

1.7 FUNCTIONAL GROUPS Certain combinations of bonds show up repeatedly in organic chemistry and organic chemists give those bonding combinations specific names. It is very useful to know the names of those specific types of bonds. Examples are shown below and you should make flash cards and learn them by heart. Chemistry 11 – Functional Groups Notes So far we have investigated hydrocarbon alkanes and have found that this particular group has limited uses and properties. If all organic molecules were alkanes, then organic chemistry would be useless and boring! Luckily, specific groups of atoms are found on organic molecules, which give the molecules

Chemistry 11 – Functional Groups Notes So far we have investigated hydrocarbon alkanes and have found that this particular group has limited uses and properties. If all organic molecules were alkanes, then organic chemistry would be useless and boring! Luckily, specific groups of atoms are found on organic molecules, which give the molecules Organic Chem Functional Groups. The symbol “R” is used to represent any carbon chains or rings; Important: Table 22.2, page 589 shows some of the major functional groups - KNOW THESE.

functional groups in organic chemistry functional groups are groups of atoms in organic molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. in the general formulae shown below for each functional group, ‘r’ represents the rest of the molecule, and ‘x’ represents any halogen atom. c alkane naming from Organic Chemistry by Robert C. Neuman, Jr. Professor of Chemistry, (C=O) is one of the most important functional groups in organic chemistry. We have already described (Chapter 13) ketones, aldehydes and carboxylic acids more comfortable with …

Chemistry 11 – Functional Groups Notes So far we have investigated hydrocarbon alkanes and have found that this particular group has limited uses and properties. If all organic molecules were alkanes, then organic chemistry would be useless and boring! Luckily, specific groups of atoms are found on organic molecules, which give the molecules 2 Structural Organic Chemistry. The Shapes of Molecules. Functional Groups Line structures also can be modified to represent the three-dimensional shapes of molecules, and the way that this is done will be discussed in detail in Chapter 5. At the onset of …

An Introduction to Functional Groups in Organic Chemistry What are Functional Groups Functional groups are common bonding patterns found in organic molecules Examples C O H CH3 C O HO CH3 an aldehyde a carboxylic acid 2 Li + 2 H 2O в†’2 LiOH + H 2 2 Na + 2 H 2O в†’2 NaOH + H 2 2 K + 2 H 2O в†’2 KOH + H 2 Reactivity of Functional Groups C O H Functional groups are groups of atoms found within molecules that are involved in the chemical reactions characteristic of those molecules. Functional groups can pertain to any molecules, but you will usually hear about them in the context of organic chemistry.

Functional Groups are groups of atoms in organic molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. In the general formulae below ‘R’ represents a hydrocarbon or hydrogen and ‘X’ represents any halogen atom. 17/07/2018 · This video tutorial provides a basic introduction into organic chemistry. Here is a list of topics: 1. How to draw lewis structures of organic compounds 2. Identifying functional groups - alkanes, alkenes, & alkynes 3. Formal charge calculations 4. Resonance structures 5. Basic IUPAC nomenclature of alkanes Subscribe: https://www

25/07/2018 · Organic compounds can also be classified on the basis of functional groups into families or homologous series. 1. Functional group. The functional group can be defined as an atom or a group of atoms that are joined together in a specific manner which is responsible for the characteristic chemical properties of organic compounds. 1 Introduction to Organic Chemistry Unit 1: Importance of Functional Groups By the end of this unit you should be able to: • convert a Lewis structure of an …

Previously, we considered several kinds of hydrocarbons. Now we examine some of the many organic compounds that contain functional groups. We first introduced the idea of the functional group, a specific structural arrangement of atoms or bonds that imparts a characteristic chemical reactivity to the molecule. 26/09/2019В В· Functional groups are specific substituents within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. The same functional groups undergo the same reaction regardless of the size of their molecules. If you are a science student then you must have covered this topic in chemistry classes.

Functional Group Priority Chart to help you rank and name organic chemistry functional groups. Print or download and save to your computer or phone by Leah4sci Functional Group Priority Chart to help you rank and name organic chemistry functional groups. Print or download and save to your computer or phone by Leah4sci

Organic Functional Groups. Identify the organic class to which the compound belongs. Show all questions <= => ? alcohol ? aldehyde ? amine ? carboxylic acid ? ester ? ether ? halide ? ketone ? alcohol ? aldehyde ? amine ? 1.7 FUNCTIONAL GROUPS Certain combinations of bonds show up repeatedly in organic chemistry and organic chemists give those bonding combinations specific names. It is very useful to know the names of those specific types of bonds. Examples are shown below and you should make flash cards and learn them by heart.

26/09/2019 · Functional groups are specific substituents within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. The same functional groups undergo the same reaction regardless of the size of their molecules. If you are a science student then you must have covered this topic in chemistry classes. 02/11/2019 · Functional Groups in Organic Chemistry Chapter Exam Instructions. Choose your answers to the questions and click 'Next' to see the next set of questions. You can skip questions if you would like and come back to them later with …

Organic Chem Functional Groups. The symbol “R” is used to represent any carbon chains or rings; Important: Table 22.2, page 589 shows some of the major functional groups - KNOW THESE. 03/08/2009 · Outlines an introductory organic chemistry curriculum based on the reactions of functional groups. Reactions of functional groups: An approach for the basic course in organic chemistry Journal of Chemical Education

FUNCTIONAL GROUPS IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. Summary Sheet - Functional Groups (1) "Master Organic Chemistry" masterorganicchemistry.com August 2012 Version 1.1 Note - this sheet is not meant to be comprehensive., An Introduction to Functional Groups in Organic Chemistry What are Functional Groups Functional groups are common bonding patterns found in organic molecules Examples C O H CH3 C O HO CH3 an aldehyde a carboxylic acid 2 Li + 2 H 2O в†’2 LiOH + H 2 2 Na + 2 H 2O в†’2 NaOH + H 2 2 K + 2 H 2O в†’2 KOH + H 2 Reactivity of Functional Groups C O H.

from Organic Chemistry (UCR) Department of Chemistry

functional groups in organic chemistry pdf

Functional group Wikipedia. 26/09/2019В В· Functional groups are specific substituents within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. The same functional groups undergo the same reaction regardless of the size of their molecules. If you are a science student then you must have covered this topic in chemistry classes., Learn organic chemistry ii functional groups with free interactive flashcards. Choose from 500 different sets of organic chemistry ii functional groups flashcards on Quizlet..

Organic Chemistry Functional Groups Quiz! ProProfs Quiz

functional groups in organic chemistry pdf

FUNCTIONAL GROUPS IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. Chemistry Notes, Chemistry Gifts, Teaching Chemistry, Chemistry Class, College Notes, College Tips, A Level Biology, Functional Groups Organic Chemistry, Medical Student Humor. More information. Saved by. Penn State Science. 41. Organic Chemistry Chart Pdf Organic Division Information - - jpeg 15/12/2009В В· The most comprehensive work in functional groups available as a fully searchable online reference resource. Covers all aspects of the chemistry of functional groups, including: physical organic chemistry, analytical chemistry and techniques, reaction mechanisms, chapters on synthetic pathways, reactions and strategies as well as applications in.

functional groups in organic chemistry pdf


In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. The same functional group will undergo the same or similar chemical reaction(s) regardless of the … functional groups in organic chemistry functional groups are groups of atoms in organic molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. in the general formulae shown below for each functional group, ‘r’ represents the rest of the molecule, and ‘x’ represents any halogen atom. c alkane naming

In organic chemistry, a functional group is a set of atoms within molecules that function together to react in predictable ways. Functional groups undergo the same chemical reactions no matter how large or small the molecule is. 2 Structural Organic Chemistry. The Shapes of Molecules. Functional Groups Line structures also can be modified to represent the three-dimensional shapes of molecules, and the way that this is done will be discussed in detail in Chapter 5. At the onset of …

Chemistry 11 – Functional Groups Notes So far we have investigated hydrocarbon alkanes and have found that this particular group has limited uses and properties. If all organic molecules were alkanes, then organic chemistry would be useless and boring! Luckily, specific groups of atoms are found on organic molecules, which give the molecules An Introduction to Functional Groups in Organic Chemistry What are Functional Groups Functional groups are common bonding patterns found in organic molecules Examples C O H CH3 C O HO CH3 an aldehyde a carboxylic acid 2 Li + 2 H 2O →2 LiOH + H 2 2 Na + 2 H 2O →2 NaOH + H 2 2 K + 2 H 2O →2 KOH + H 2 Reactivity of Functional Groups C O H

Priority table of functional groups of organic chemistry www.vaxasoftware.com Formula Function Sufix (main function) Prefix (secondary function) 26/09/2019В В· Functional groups are specific substituents within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. The same functional groups undergo the same reaction regardless of the size of their molecules. If you are a science student then you must have covered this topic in chemistry classes.

Organic Functional Groups. Identify the organic class to which the compound belongs. Show all questions <= => ? alcohol ? aldehyde ? amine ? carboxylic acid ? ester ? ether ? halide ? ketone ? alcohol ? aldehyde ? amine ? In organic chemistry, a functional group is a set of atoms within molecules that function together to react in predictable ways. Functional groups undergo the same chemical reactions no matter how large or small the molecule is.

Organic Compounds: hydrocarbons and derivatives just C and H C, H, N, O, X, etc Note: groups can rotate about a C-C single bond (Пѓ only), but not a C=C double (Пѓ + ПЂ)! Organic Functional Group List Functional Group Compound Prefix/Suffix Example Chemistry Notes, Chemistry Gifts, Teaching Chemistry, Chemistry Class, College Notes, College Tips, A Level Biology, Functional Groups Organic Chemistry, Medical Student Humor. More information. Saved by. Penn State Science. 41. Organic Chemistry Chart Pdf Organic Division Information - - jpeg

In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. The same functional group will undergo the same or similar chemical reaction(s) regardless of the … Chemistry 11 – Functional Groups Notes So far we have investigated hydrocarbon alkanes and have found that this particular group has limited uses and properties. If all organic molecules were alkanes, then organic chemistry would be useless and boring! Luckily, specific groups of atoms are found on organic molecules, which give the molecules

Functional Groups are groups of atoms in organic molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. In the general formulae below ‘R’ represents a hydrocarbon or hydrogen and ‘X’ represents any halogen atom. 02/11/2019 · Functional Groups in Organic Chemistry Chapter Exam Instructions. Choose your answers to the questions and click 'Next' to see the next set of questions. You can skip questions if you would like and come back to them later with …

22/07/2018 · Functional Groups, in the field of organic chemistry, are the substituent atoms or groups of atoms that are attached to specific molecules. These moieties (the part of the molecule which can be found in many other molecules as well) are responsible for the chemical reactions that the molecule they are attached to participate in. 1 Introduction to Organic Chemistry Unit 1: Importance of Functional Groups By the end of this unit you should be able to: • convert a Lewis structure of an …

27/09/2015В В· Organic Chemistry Functional Groups broken down to help you understand and memorize structure and formula by http://leah4sci.com This video breaks down the c... 1.7 FUNCTIONAL GROUPS Certain combinations of bonds show up repeatedly in organic chemistry and organic chemists give those bonding combinations specific names. It is very useful to know the names of those specific types of bonds. Examples are shown below and you should make flash cards and learn them by heart.

22/07/2018В В· Functional Groups, in the field of organic chemistry, are the substituent atoms or groups of atoms that are attached to specific molecules. These moieties (the part of the molecule which can be found in many other molecules as well) are responsible for the chemical reactions that the molecule they are attached to participate in. An Introduction to Functional Groups in Organic Chemistry What are Functional Groups Functional groups are common bonding patterns found in organic molecules Examples C O H CH3 C O HO CH3 an aldehyde a carboxylic acid 2 Li + 2 H 2O в†’2 LiOH + H 2 2 Na + 2 H 2O в†’2 NaOH + H 2 2 K + 2 H 2O в†’2 KOH + H 2 Reactivity of Functional Groups C O H

Summary Sheet - Functional Groups (1) "Master Organic Chemistry" masterorganicchemistry.com August 2012 Version 1.1 Note - this sheet is not meant to be comprehensive. functional groups in organic chemistry functional groups are groups of atoms in organic molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. in the general formulae below, ‘r’ represents a hydrocarbon group or …

Summary Sheet - Functional Groups (1) "Master Organic Chemistry" masterorganicchemistry.com August 2012 Version 1.1 Note - this sheet is not meant to be comprehensive. Functional groups in organic compounds. Functional groups are structural units within organic compounds that are defined by specific bonding arrangements between specific atoms. The structure of capsaicin, the compound responsible for the heat in peppers, incorporates several functional groups, labeled in the figure below and explained

functional groups in organic chemistry pdf

Organic Functional Groups. Identify the organic class to which the compound belongs. Show all questions <= => ? alcohol ? aldehyde ? amine ? carboxylic acid ? ester ? ether ? halide ? ketone ? alcohol ? aldehyde ? amine ? 2 Structural Organic Chemistry. The Shapes of Molecules. Functional Groups Line structures also can be modified to represent the three-dimensional shapes of molecules, and the way that this is done will be discussed in detail in Chapter 5. At the onset of …