PDF PROBLEMS ABOUT FRAME STRUCTURE



Pdf Problems About Frame Structure

Space Truss and Space Frame Analysis Rice University. Frame structures are the structures having the combination of beam, column and slab to resist the lateral and gravity loads. These structures are usually used to overcome the large moments developing due to the applied loading. Types of Frames: Frames structures can be differentiated into: 1. Rigid frame structure Which are further subdivided into:Pin ended, Fixed, frame structure. 29 Example Frame Problem 2 Calculate and draw the axial force, shear force and bending moment equations for the given frame structure. ….

CIVL 3121 Introduction to Structures 1/6

STRUCTURES Grade 8 Tegnologie. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF FRAMED STRUCTURES 4.1 Steps Involved In Frame Analysis 34 Chapter 5 PROBLEMS SOLVED 40 Chapter 6 COMPUTER PROGRAMMES 54 displacements, that will simulate the behavior of the real structure. The mass of a structural system, which can be accurately estimated, is lumped at the nodes., The structure must meet the performance requirement (utility). CIVL 3121 Introduction to Structures 1/6. Theory of Structures -Defined The complete design of a structure is outlined in the following stages: CIVL 3121 Introduction to Structures 2/6..

structural analysis problems and solutions pdf. Eng salamah. Download with determine the reaction and draw the bending moment diagram for the structure shown below. C B .M .D 13 For the frame shown use the slope-deflection method to determine the end moments of the members and draw the bending moment diagram. is the same throughout. 4. Analysis of Plane Trusses and Frames December 2009 Analysis of Plane Trusses and Frames 12/09 1 / 28. Introduction An engineering structure is any connected system of members built to Frame Е’a structure in which at least one of its individual members is a multiforce member.

Approximate Lateral Load Analysis by Portal Method Portal Frame In order to analyze a structure using the equations of statics only, the number of independent force Problems on Lateral Load Analysis by Portal Method 1. The figure below shows the shear forces (kips) in … Produced by Educative Technologies, LLC. This is our second video on the analysis of cables. The lecture covers the static analysis of cables subjected to a series of concentrated loads.

• To report some results of structural dynamics problems solved using a computer program, including a fixed-fixed beam for natural frequencies, a bar, a fixed-fixed beam, a rigid frame, and a gantry crane-all subjected to time-dependent forcing functions. CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 16 - Structural Dynamics 1/85 frame structure. 29 Example Frame Problem 2 Calculate and draw the axial force, shear force and bending moment equations for the given frame structure. …

structural analysis problems and solutions pdf. Eng salamah. Download with determine the reaction and draw the bending moment diagram for the structure shown below. C B .M .D 13 For the frame shown use the slope-deflection method to determine the end moments of the members and draw the bending moment diagram. is the same throughout. Structural Analysis: Space Truss Space Truss - 6 bars joined at their ends to form the edges of a tetrahedron as the basic non-collapsible unit - 3 additional concurrent bars whose ends are attached to three joints on the existing structure are required to add a new rigid unit to extend the structure.

ANALYSIS OF FRAMED STRUCTURES-BlliNT AND BAlANT 453 PART II In the eleven years since Part I was written, the frame analysis has been going through a rapid development and has reached remarkable achieve­ ments in general formulation as well as in solutions of new practical problems… including small day-to-day problems. Complex Models can be generated and meshed with powerful Templates built into the interface. small 2D static frame analysis to a large complex 3D nonlinear dynamic analysis, SAP2000 is the answer to all structural analysis and design needs.

ANALYSIS OF FRAMED STRUCTURES-BlliNT AND BAlANT 453 PART II In the eleven years since Part I was written, the frame analysis has been going through a rapid development and has reached remarkable achieve­ ments in general formulation as well as in solutions of new practical problems… 10 Space Truss and Space Frame Analysis 10.1 Introduction One‐dimensional models can be very accurate and very cost effective in the proper applications. For example, a hollow tube may require many thousands of elements to match its geometry, even though you expect its stresses to be constant.

SAP2000 FEATURES & A TO Z PROBLEMS

pdf problems about frame structure

Chapter 4 Matrix Stiffness Method - Colin Caprani. Approximate Lateral Load Analysis by Portal Method Portal Frame In order to analyze a structure using the equations of statics only, the number of independent force Problems on Lateral Load Analysis by Portal Method 1. The figure below shows the shear forces (kips) in …, 4. Analysis of Plane Trusses and Frames December 2009 Analysis of Plane Trusses and Frames 12/09 1 / 28. Introduction An engineering structure is any connected system of members built to Frame Œa structure in which at least one of its individual members is a multiforce member..

Appendix 1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Timber Frame. Truss – Assumptions . There are four main assumptions made in the analysis of truss . Truss members are connected together at their ends only. Truss are connected together by frictionless pins. The truss structure is loaded only at the joints. The weights of the members may be neglected. 1 2 3 4, Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 – Matrix Stiffness Method 3 Dr. C. Caprani 4.1 Introduction 4.1.1 Background The matrix stiffness method is the basis of almost all commercial structural analysis programs. It is a specific case of the more general finite element method, and was in.

STRUCTURES Grade 8 Tegnologie

pdf problems about frame structure

Stiffness Methods for Systematic Analysis of Structures. The structure must meet the performance requirement (utility). CIVL 3121 Introduction to Structures 1/6. Theory of Structures -Defined The complete design of a structure is outlined in the following stages: CIVL 3121 Introduction to Structures 2/6. the structure but, in most houses, the most critical connections exist where the roof system connects to with concrete or masonry systems are also typically used to carry loads and to act as the frame of the building. Load-bearing wall systems of any construction type can and should be considered as part of.

pdf problems about frame structure

  • (PDF) Steel Frame Structure analysis and design by Staad
  • Space Truss and Space Frame Analysis Rice University

  • 4. Analysis of Plane Trusses and Frames December 2009 Analysis of Plane Trusses and Frames 12/09 1 / 28. Introduction An engineering structure is any connected system of members built to Frame Е’a structure in which at least one of its individual members is a multiforce member. Steel Frame Structure analysis and design by Staad-Pro (Example -4) Technical Report (PDF Available) В· February 2017 with 13,996 Reads How we measure 'reads'

    ANALYSIS OF FRAMED STRUCTURES-BlliNT AND BAlANT 453 PART II In the eleven years since Part I was written, the frame analysis has been going through a rapid development and has reached remarkable achieve­ ments in general formulation as well as in solutions of new practical problems… lead to new environmental problems. Figure 1 shows the main structure of a bicycle frame. In accordance with its functions, a bicycle structure can be divided into five parts: body (skeleton), steering system, braking systems, wheel system, and the transmission system.8 In this article, the research focused on bicycle frames. The

    TDMA : Frame Structure TDMA requires a centralized control node, whose primary function is forces a measure of synchronization of all the users. The frame so-defined is divided into time slots, and each user is Many of the problems experienced in TDMA due … 10 Space Truss and Space Frame Analysis 10.1 Introduction One‐dimensional models can be very accurate and very cost effective in the proper applications. For example, a hollow tube may require many thousands of elements to match its geometry, even though you expect its stresses to be constant.

    Version 14.0 AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION . Design Examples V14.0 to include 43 example problems that will be most likely to address topics that are studied illustrated through a four-story braced-frame and moment-frame building. structure as given by the style of truss used. Examples of the variations include the Warren, Fink (or W), Pratt, and Howe. Each of these in general refer to the geometric configuration of the web members of the truss. There also are variations in the truss frame given by the geometric shape of the frame, also referred to in some texts as a bent.

    frame structure. 29 Example Frame Problem 2 Calculate and draw the axial force, shear force and bending moment equations for the given frame structure. … PDF According to STAAD-Pro V8i software, sketch the idealization of Steel frame structure with truss roof (inclined angle sections only) shown Steel Frame Structure Modeling by Staad-Pro

    including small day-to-day problems. Complex Models can be generated and meshed with powerful Templates built into the interface. small 2D static frame analysis to a large complex 3D nonlinear dynamic analysis, SAP2000 is the answer to all structural analysis and design needs. COURSE CODE-BCE 306 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 2 . 2 Analysis of continuous beam and plane frame by slope deflection method and moment distribution method. structure. In the analysis of indeterminate structure it is necessary to satisfy the equilibrium equations (implying that the structure is in equilibrium) compatibility equations

    CE 405: Design of Steel Structures – Prof. Dr. A. Varma EXAMPLE 3.1 Determine the buckling strength of a W 12 x 50 column. Its length is 20 ft. For major axis buckling, it is pinned at both ends. For minor buckling, is it pinned at one end and Steel Frame Structure analysis and design by Staad-Pro (Example -4) Technical Report (PDF Available) · February 2017 with 13,996 Reads How we measure 'reads'

    (PDF) Steel Frame Structure Modeling by Staad-Pro (Example2)

    pdf problems about frame structure

    Structural Analysis Space Truss. Structural Stability and Determinacy Stability is an essential precondition for a structure to be able to carry the loads it is subjected to, and therefore being suitable for structural analysis. Since structural analysis is based on solving the unknown 2D Frame 3m r j hr ≥ 3+ 3m + r 3j, structure as given by the style of truss used. Examples of the variations include the Warren, Fink (or W), Pratt, and Howe. Each of these in general refer to the geometric configuration of the web members of the truss. There also are variations in the truss frame given by the geometric shape of the frame, also referred to in some texts as a bent..

    ANALYSIS OF FRAMED STRUCTURES

    Chapter 16 – Structural Dynamics. 8 5 kN 6 m 6 m A B C Example 1 For the frame shown, use the stiffness method to: (a) Determine the deflection and rotation at B. (b) Determine all the reactions at supports. (c) Draw the quantitative shear and bending moment diagrams. E = 200 GPa, I = 60(106) mm4, A = 600 mm2, COURSE CODE-BCE 306 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 2 . 2 Analysis of continuous beam and plane frame by slope deflection method and moment distribution method. structure. In the analysis of indeterminate structure it is necessary to satisfy the equilibrium equations (implying that the structure is in equilibrium) compatibility equations.

    Frame structures are the structures having the combination of beam, column and slab to resist the lateral and gravity loads. These structures are usually used to overcome the large moments developing due to the applied loading. Types of Frames: Frames structures can be differentiated into: 1. Rigid frame structure Which are further subdivided into:Pin ended, Fixed CHAPTER 2 STATICALLY INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES Consider a structure subjected to several forces in space, this structure will For instant, the frame given in figure with three intermediate hinges is a statically determinate structure with six reaction components.

    Structural Analysis IV Chapter 4 – Matrix Stiffness Method 3 Dr. C. Caprani 4.1 Introduction 4.1.1 Background The matrix stiffness method is the basis of almost all commercial structural analysis programs. It is a specific case of the more general finite element method, and was in Stiffness Method for Frame Structures For frame problems (with possibly inclined beam elements), the stiffness method can be used to solve the problem by transforming element stiffness matrices from the LOCAL to GLOBAL coordinates. Note that in addition to the usual bending terms, we will also have to account for axial effects .

    The Institution of Structural Engineers The Institution of Civil Engineers MARCH 2000 Manual for the design of reinforced concrete building structures to EC2 Produced by Educative Technologies, LLC. This is our second video on the analysis of cables. The lecture covers the static analysis of cables subjected to a series of concentrated loads.

    Approximate Lateral Load Analysis by Portal Method Portal Frame In order to analyze a structure using the equations of statics only, the number of independent force Problems on Lateral Load Analysis by Portal Method 1. The figure below shows the shear forces (kips) in … 10 Space Truss and Space Frame Analysis 10.1 Introduction One‐dimensional models can be very accurate and very cost effective in the proper applications. For example, a hollow tube may require many thousands of elements to match its geometry, even though you expect its stresses to be constant.

    Idealized structure is needed to the engineer to perform a practical force analysis of the whole frame and its member. This is the reason in this section to show different member connections and supports and there idealizations. If one know these models may compose idealized model of each real structure after all perform the analysis and design. Structural Analysis: Space Truss Space Truss - 6 bars joined at their ends to form the edges of a tetrahedron as the basic non-collapsible unit - 3 additional concurrent bars whose ends are attached to three joints on the existing structure are required to add a new rigid unit to extend the structure.

    Structural Analysis: Space Truss Space Truss - 6 bars joined at their ends to form the edges of a tetrahedron as the basic non-collapsible unit - 3 additional concurrent bars whose ends are attached to three joints on the existing structure are required to add a new rigid unit to extend the structure. The structure must meet the performance requirement (utility). CIVL 3121 Introduction to Structures 1/6. Theory of Structures -Defined The complete design of a structure is outlined in the following stages: CIVL 3121 Introduction to Structures 2/6.

    Frame structures are the structures having the combination of beam, column and slab to resist the lateral and gravity loads. These structures are usually used to overcome the large moments developing due to the applied loading. Types of Frames: Frames structures can be differentiated into: 1. Rigid frame structure Which are further subdivided into:Pin ended, Fixed CHAPTER 2 STATICALLY INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES Consider a structure subjected to several forces in space, this structure will For instant, the frame given in figure with three intermediate hinges is a statically determinate structure with six reaction components.

    DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF FRAMED STRUCTURES 4.1 Steps Involved In Frame Analysis 34 Chapter 5 PROBLEMS SOLVED 40 Chapter 6 COMPUTER PROGRAMMES 54 displacements, that will simulate the behavior of the real structure. The mass of a structural system, which can be accurately estimated, is lumped at the nodes. CE 405: Design of Steel Structures – Prof. Dr. A. Varma EXAMPLE 3.1 Determine the buckling strength of a W 12 x 50 column. Its length is 20 ft. For major axis buckling, it is pinned at both ends. For minor buckling, is it pinned at one end and

    Frame structures are the structures having the combination of beam, column and slab to resist the lateral and gravity loads. These structures are usually used to overcome the large moments developing due to the applied loading. Types of Frames: Frames structures can be differentiated into: 1. Rigid frame structure Which are further subdivided into:Pin ended, Fixed 4. Analysis of Plane Trusses and Frames December 2009 Analysis of Plane Trusses and Frames 12/09 1 / 28. Introduction An engineering structure is any connected system of members built to Frame Е’a structure in which at least one of its individual members is a multiforce member.

    COURSE CODE-BCE 306 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 2 . 2 Analysis of continuous beam and plane frame by slope deflection method and moment distribution method. structure. In the analysis of indeterminate structure it is necessary to satisfy the equilibrium equations (implying that the structure is in equilibrium) compatibility equations lead to new environmental problems. Figure 1 shows the main structure of a bicycle frame. In accordance with its functions, a bicycle structure can be divided into five parts: body (skeleton), steering system, braking systems, wheel system, and the transmission system.8 In this article, the research focused on bicycle frames. The

    Chapter 5: Indeterminate Structures – Force Method 1. Introduction • Statically indeterminate structures are the ones where the independent reaction components, and/or internal forces cannot be obtained by using the equations of equilibrium only. To solve indeterminate systems, we must combine the concept of equilibrium with compatibility. ANALYSIS OF FRAMED STRUCTURES-BlliNT AND BAlANT 453 PART II In the eleven years since Part I was written, the frame analysis has been going through a rapid development and has reached remarkable achieve­ ments in general formulation as well as in solutions of new practical problems…

    CE 405: Design of Steel Structures – Prof. Dr. A. Varma EXAMPLE 3.1 Determine the buckling strength of a W 12 x 50 column. Its length is 20 ft. For major axis buckling, it is pinned at both ends. For minor buckling, is it pinned at one end and Frame structures are the structures having the combination of beam, column and slab to resist the lateral and gravity loads. These structures are usually used to overcome the large moments developing due to the applied loading. Types of Frames: Frames structures can be differentiated into: 1. Rigid frame structure Which are further subdivided into:Pin ended, Fixed

    LECTURE NOTE COURSE CODE-BCE 306 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 2

    pdf problems about frame structure

    Matrix Structural Analysis of Plane Frames using Scilab. Approximate Lateral Load Analysis by Portal Method Portal Frame In order to analyze a structure using the equations of statics only, the number of independent force Problems on Lateral Load Analysis by Portal Method 1. The figure below shows the shear forces (kips) in …, 6/19/2012 · Brief explanation of equilibrium equations and how to determine if a structure is statically determinate, indeterminate, or unstable. Statically Indeterminate Explanation - Structural Analysis.

    Chapter 16 – Structural Dynamics. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF FRAMED STRUCTURES 4.1 Steps Involved In Frame Analysis 34 Chapter 5 PROBLEMS SOLVED 40 Chapter 6 COMPUTER PROGRAMMES 54 displacements, that will simulate the behavior of the real structure. The mass of a structural system, which can be accurately estimated, is lumped at the nodes., Chapter 5: Indeterminate Structures – Force Method 1. Introduction • Statically indeterminate structures are the ones where the independent reaction components, and/or internal forces cannot be obtained by using the equations of equilibrium only. To solve indeterminate systems, we must combine the concept of equilibrium with compatibility..

    Chapter 16 – Structural Dynamics

    pdf problems about frame structure

    FRAME ANALYSIS USING THE STIFFNESS METHOD. Structural Stability and Determinacy Stability is an essential precondition for a structure to be able to carry the loads it is subjected to, and therefore being suitable for structural analysis. Since structural analysis is based on solving the unknown 2D Frame 3m r j hr ≥ 3+ 3m + r 3j conventional wood frame home are shown in Figure 5.1; the reader is referred to Chapter 1 for more detailed references to house framing and related construction details. Many elements of a home work together as a system to resist lateral and axial forces imposed on the above-grade structure and transfer them to the foundation..

    pdf problems about frame structure

  • DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF FRAMED STRUCTURES
  • CIVL 3121 Introduction to Structures 1/6
  • SAP2000 FEATURES & A TO Z PROBLEMS

  • Idealized structure is needed to the engineer to perform a practical force analysis of the whole frame and its member. This is the reason in this section to show different member connections and supports and there idealizations. If one know these models may compose idealized model of each real structure after all perform the analysis and design. 4. Analysis of Plane Trusses and Frames December 2009 Analysis of Plane Trusses and Frames 12/09 1 / 28. Introduction An engineering structure is any connected system of members built to Frame Е’a structure in which at least one of its individual members is a multiforce member.

    Truss – Assumptions . There are four main assumptions made in the analysis of truss . Truss members are connected together at their ends only. Truss are connected together by frictionless pins. The truss structure is loaded only at the joints. The weights of the members may be neglected. 1 2 3 4 The Institution of Structural Engineers The Institution of Civil Engineers MARCH 2000 Manual for the design of reinforced concrete building structures to EC2

    Free Body Diagrams of Multi-Body Systems Frame 16-1 Introduction This unit will give you more work on free body diagrams. In it we will deal with the methods of relating forces on several bodies which make up a system and with ways of breaking a system into several parts. These techniques are very useful in working problems involving forces in DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF FRAMED STRUCTURES 4.1 Steps Involved In Frame Analysis 34 Chapter 5 PROBLEMS SOLVED 40 Chapter 6 COMPUTER PROGRAMMES 54 displacements, that will simulate the behavior of the real structure. The mass of a structural system, which can be accurately estimated, is lumped at the nodes.

    • To report some results of structural dynamics problems solved using a computer program, including a fixed-fixed beam for natural frequencies, a bar, a fixed-fixed beam, a rigid frame, and a gantry crane-all subjected to time-dependent forcing functions. CIVL 7/8117 Chapter 16 - Structural Dynamics 1/85 off and demonstrates how to use Scilab to develop a simple program for the Matrix Structural Analysis of Plane Frames using the Direct Stiffness Method (DSM). The DSM is the method used in the computer analysis of structures and is the precursor to the more general Finite Element Method.

    COURSE CODE-BCE 306 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 2 . 2 Analysis of continuous beam and plane frame by slope deflection method and moment distribution method. structure. In the analysis of indeterminate structure it is necessary to satisfy the equilibrium equations (implying that the structure is in equilibrium) compatibility equations 6/19/2012В В· Brief explanation of equilibrium equations and how to determine if a structure is statically determinate, indeterminate, or unstable. Statically Indeterminate Explanation - Structural Analysis

    4. Analysis of Plane Trusses and Frames December 2009 Analysis of Plane Trusses and Frames 12/09 1 / 28. Introduction An engineering structure is any connected system of members built to Frame Е’a structure in which at least one of its individual members is a multiforce member. Structural Analysis: Space Truss Space Truss - 6 bars joined at their ends to form the edges of a tetrahedron as the basic non-collapsible unit - 3 additional concurrent bars whose ends are attached to three joints on the existing structure are required to add a new rigid unit to extend the structure.

    The structure must meet the performance requirement (utility). CIVL 3121 Introduction to Structures 1/6. Theory of Structures -Defined The complete design of a structure is outlined in the following stages: CIVL 3121 Introduction to Structures 2/6. including small day-to-day problems. Complex Models can be generated and meshed with powerful Templates built into the interface. small 2D static frame analysis to a large complex 3D nonlinear dynamic analysis, SAP2000 is the answer to all structural analysis and design needs.

    The graphical tools for describing problems are the context diagram and the problem diagram. Tools for describing classes of problems (problem frames) The Problem Frames Approach includes concepts for describing classes of problems. A recognized class of problems is called a problem frame (roughly analogous to a design pattern). COURSE CODE-BCE 306 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 2 . 2 Analysis of continuous beam and plane frame by slope deflection method and moment distribution method. structure. In the analysis of indeterminate structure it is necessary to satisfy the equilibrium equations (implying that the structure is in equilibrium) compatibility equations

    Free Body Diagrams of Multi-Body Systems Frame 16-1 Introduction This unit will give you more work on free body diagrams. In it we will deal with the methods of relating forces on several bodies which make up a system and with ways of breaking a system into several parts. These techniques are very useful in working problems involving forces in Grade 8 Technology STRUCTURES Types of Structures Natural and Manmade structures Structures are all around us, some are natural like eggshells, spider-webs, caves and trees Frame Structures A frame structure is a structure made up of many rigid parts joined together to form a ‘framework’. These different parts are called members.

    Grade 8 Technology STRUCTURES Types of Structures Natural and Manmade structures Structures are all around us, some are natural like eggshells, spider-webs, caves and trees Frame Structures A frame structure is a structure made up of many rigid parts joined together to form a ‘framework’. These different parts are called members. The structure must meet the performance requirement (utility). CIVL 3121 Introduction to Structures 1/6. Theory of Structures -Defined The complete design of a structure is outlined in the following stages: CIVL 3121 Introduction to Structures 2/6.

    structure as given by the style of truss used. Examples of the variations include the Warren, Fink (or W), Pratt, and Howe. Each of these in general refer to the geometric configuration of the web members of the truss. There also are variations in the truss frame given by the geometric shape of the frame, also referred to in some texts as a bent. 4. Analysis of Plane Trusses and Frames December 2009 Analysis of Plane Trusses and Frames 12/09 1 / 28. Introduction An engineering structure is any connected system of members built to Frame Е’a structure in which at least one of its individual members is a multiforce member.

    The graphical tools for describing problems are the context diagram and the problem diagram. Tools for describing classes of problems (problem frames) The Problem Frames Approach includes concepts for describing classes of problems. A recognized class of problems is called a problem frame (roughly analogous to a design pattern). Produced by Educative Technologies, LLC. This is our second video on the analysis of cables. The lecture covers the static analysis of cables subjected to a series of concentrated loads.

    CHAPTER 2 STATICALLY INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES Consider a structure subjected to several forces in space, this structure will For instant, the frame given in figure with three intermediate hinges is a statically determinate structure with six reaction components. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF FRAMED STRUCTURES 4.1 Steps Involved In Frame Analysis 34 Chapter 5 PROBLEMS SOLVED 40 Chapter 6 COMPUTER PROGRAMMES 54 displacements, that will simulate the behavior of the real structure. The mass of a structural system, which can be accurately estimated, is lumped at the nodes.

    pdf problems about frame structure

    structure as given by the style of truss used. Examples of the variations include the Warren, Fink (or W), Pratt, and Howe. Each of these in general refer to the geometric configuration of the web members of the truss. There also are variations in the truss frame given by the geometric shape of the frame, also referred to in some texts as a bent. Stiffness Method for Frame Structures For frame problems (with possibly inclined beam elements), the stiffness method can be used to solve the problem by transforming element stiffness matrices from the LOCAL to GLOBAL coordinates. Note that in addition to the usual bending terms, we will also have to account for axial effects .