THE BYZANTINE SHOPS AT SARDIS PDF



The Byzantine Shops At Sardis Pdf

Sardis – following hadrian photography. This page was last edited on 24 February 2019, at 13:46. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; all unstructured text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply., Shops for small industry and retail trade in a late-antique city - J. STEPHENS CRAWFORD, THE BYZANTINE SHOPS AT SARDIS (Archaeological Exploration of Sardis, Monograph no.9, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA1990). Pp. x + 156, 610 figs. ISBN 0-674-08968-5. - Volume 6 - ….

Sardis Publications from the Archaeological Exploration of

Houses streets and shops in Byzantine Constantinople from. A rchaeology and the Cities of Asia Minor in Late Antiquity Edited by Ortwin Dally and Christopher RattГ© Kelsey Museum Publication 6 Ann Arbor, Michigan 2011 1 Sardis in Late Antiquity Marcus Rautman A sia Minor has always been central to the study of classical urban culture, particularly during its long late antique twilight.1 Understanding this transitional phase of ancient settled life has, Archaeological Exploration of Sardis, 9: The Byzantine Shops at Sardis by J. Stephens Crawford (review) Caroline Williams , Hector Williams Echos du monde classique: Classical views.

Daniel at Sardis Marcus Rautman Department of Art History & Archaeology 109 Pickard Hall University of Missouri Columbia, MO 65211 rautmanm@missouri.edu Recently identified among the architectural decoration of the Sardis Synagogue are three fragments of … Daniel at Sardis Marcus Rautman Department of Art History & Archaeology 109 Pickard Hall University of Missouri Columbia, MO 65211 rautmanm@missouri.edu Recently identified among the architectural decoration of the Sardis Synagogue are three fragments of …

A rchaeology and the Cities of Asia Minor in Late Antiquity Edited by Ortwin Dally and Christopher RattГ© Kelsey Museum Publication 6 Ann Arbor, Michigan 2011 1 Sardis in Late Antiquity Marcus Rautman A sia Minor has always been central to the study of classical urban culture, particularly during its long late antique twilight.1 Understanding this transitional phase of ancient settled life has SARDIS: ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH AND CONSERVATION PROJECTS IN 2001 CrawfordH. GREENEWALT,JR* Surveys, exeavation. conservation, restoration, touristic enhancementand study projects at the city of Sardis (Fig. 1) in 2001 (early June to mid-August) were conduc-ted by the Archaeoloqical Exploration of Sardis, or Sardis Expedition; which is co-spon-

Religions of the World: A Journey through Africa, Mesoamerica, North America, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, China, and Japan Sardis (sär´dĬs) or Sardes (–dēz), ancient city of Lydia, W Asia Minor [1], at the foot of Mt. Tmolus, 35 mi (56 km) NE of the modern Izmir, Turkey. As capital of Lydia, it was the political and cultural center of Asia Minor [2] from 650 BC until the death of Croesus [3] (c.547 BC).

Byzantine shops synagogue gymnasium palestra gymnasium marble court . Sardis Temple of Artemis Sardis shepherd with his sheep . Jesus’ Assessment of the Church at Sardis Striving to be Disciples who make Disciples A. Jesus’ Assessment of the Church at Sardis A rchaeology and the Cities of Asia Minor in Late Antiquity Edited by Ortwin Dally and Christopher Ratté Kelsey Museum Publication 6 Ann Arbor, Michigan 2011 1 Sardis in Late Antiquity Marcus Rautman A sia Minor has always been central to the study of classical urban culture, particularly during its long late antique twilight.1 Understanding this transitional phase of ancient settled life has

A rchaeology and the Cities of Asia Minor in Late Antiquity Edited by Ortwin Dally and Christopher RattГ© Kelsey Museum Publication 6 Ann Arbor, Michigan 2011 1 Sardis in Late Antiquity Marcus Rautman A sia Minor has always been central to the study of classical urban culture, particularly during its long late antique twilight.1 Understanding this transitional phase of ancient settled life has Archaeological Exploration of Sardis, 9: The Byzantine Shops at Sardis by J. Stephens Crawford (review) Caroline Williams , Hector Williams Echos du monde classique: Classical views

N 38 28 55 E 28 2 43 (Sardis) N 3834 48 E 28 00 25 (Bintepe) Byzantine Shops, and related areas were restored in the 1960s and 1970s, according to the best standards then in use. The Marble Court was the first large-scale anastylosis project in Turkey, and became a model for later projects such as the Library of Celsus at Ephesus. M7: Greek, Roman, and Islamic Coins from Sardis [PDF] T. V. Buttrey, Ann Johnston, Kenneth M. MacKenzie, and Michael L. Bates, 1981. PDF courtesy of the AMAR Archive

The city served then as the administrative center of the Roman province of Lydia. Sardis was reconstructed after the catastrophic earthquake of 17 CE and enjoyed a long period of prosperity under the Roman rule and then within the Byzantine Empire, until it … Shops for small industry and retail trade in a late-antique city - J. STEPHENS CRAWFORD, THE BYZANTINE SHOPS AT SARDIS (Archaeological Exploration of Sardis, Monograph no.9, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA1990). Pp. x + 156, 610 figs. ISBN 0-674-08968-5. - Volume 6 - …

(PDF) Sardis in Late Antiquity Marcus Rautman Academia.edu

the byzantine shops at sardis pdf

6.12. Unidentified male statue base showing signature of. Sardis (sär´dĬs) or Sardes (–dēz), ancient city of Lydia, W Asia Minor [1], at the foot of Mt. Tmolus, 35 mi (56 km) NE of the modern Izmir, Turkey. As capital of Lydia, it was the political and cultural center of Asia Minor [2] from 650 BC until the death of Croesus [3] (c.547 BC)., Description: The American Journal of Archaeology, published by the Archaeological Institute of America, was founded in 1885 and is one of the world's oldest and most distinguished and widely distributed archaeological journals. The AJA reaches more than 50 countries and almost 1,000 universities, learned societies, departments of antiquities, and museums..

(PDF) Daniel at Sardis Marcus Rautman Academia.edu. Jul 10, 2016В В· AWOL is a project of Charles E. Jones, Tombros Librarian for Classics and Humanities at the Pattee Library, Penn State University AWOL began with a series of entries under the heading AWOL on the Ancient World Bloggers Group Blog.I moved it to its own space here beginning in 2009. The primary focus of the project is notice and comment on open access material relating to the ancient world, but, monograph (Crawford, 1990) on the Byzantine shops in the ancient city of Sardis is unlikely to make it to the New York Timeshardcover bestseller list, but it is of immense interest to other specialists. As has been noted many times, the positivist and postpositivist approach is based on a number of givens or foundational beliefs. One of the most.

The Ancient Synagogue of Sardis Turkey Beit Hatfutsot

the byzantine shops at sardis pdf

Sardis – following hadrian photography. Sardis (Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Culture) A brief encyclopedia-type article which discusses the history of the region. Sardis (Cities of Revelation) Summarizes the basic facts about Sardis in a user-friendly format. Features several nice photographs. The city served then as the administrative center of the Roman province of Lydia. Sardis was reconstructed after the catastrophic earthquake of 17 CE and enjoyed a long period of prosperity under the Roman rule and then within the Byzantine Empire, until it ….

the byzantine shops at sardis pdf


The city served then as the administrative center of the Roman province of Lydia. Sardis was reconstructed after the catastrophic earthquake of 17 CE and enjoyed a long period of prosperity under the Roman rule and then within the Byzantine Empire, until it … Religions of the World: A Journey through Africa, Mesoamerica, North America, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, China, and Japan

Archaeological Exploration of Sardis, 9: The Byzantine Shops at Sardis by J. Stephens Crawford (review) Caroline Williams , Hector Williams Echos du monde classique: Classical views M7: Greek, Roman, and Islamic Coins from Sardis [PDF] T. V. Buttrey, Ann Johnston, Kenneth M. MacKenzie, and Michael L. Bates, 1981. PDF courtesy of the AMAR Archive

several years at the Sardis Archeological Expedition at Harvard as editor and contributing author of the Byzantine Shops at Sardis (Harvard University Press 1990)—he decided to combine avocation and vocation in the field of landscape and architectural design. Sardis (Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Culture) A brief encyclopedia-type article which discusses the history of the region. Sardis (Cities of Revelation) Summarizes the basic facts about Sardis in a user-friendly format. Features several nice photographs.

N 38 28 55 E 28 2 43 (Sardis) N 3834 48 E 28 00 25 (Bintepe) Byzantine Shops, and related areas were restored in the 1960s and 1970s, according to the best standards then in use. The Marble Court was the first large-scale anastylosis project in Turkey, and became a model for later projects such as the Library of Celsus at Ephesus. HISTORY OF THE CHURCH AT SARDIS. 54 / 55 “Write to the angel of the church in Sardis: “The One who has the seven spirits of God and the seven stars says: I know your works; you have a reputation for being alive, but you are dead. 2 Be alert and

This page was last edited on 24 February 2019, at 13:46. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; all unstructured text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. Love for Lydia: A Sardis Anniversary Volume Presented to Crawford H. Greenewalt, Ancient and Byzantine Glass from Sardis, The Byzantine Shops at Sardis, by J. Stephens Crawford ( )

Byzantine shops synagogue gymnasium palestra gymnasium marble court . Sardis Temple of Artemis Sardis shepherd with his sheep . Jesus’ Assessment of the Church at Sardis Striving to be Disciples who make Disciples A. Jesus’ Assessment of the Church at Sardis several years at the Sardis Archeological Expedition at Harvard as editor and contributing author of the Byzantine Shops at Sardis (Harvard University Press 1990)—he decided to combine avocation and vocation in the field of landscape and architectural design.

This page was last edited on 24 February 2019, at 13:46. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; all unstructured text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. several years at the Sardis Archeological Expedition at Harvard as editor and contributing author of the Byzantine Shops at Sardis (Harvard University Press 1990)—he decided to combine avocation and vocation in the field of landscape and architectural design.

Sardis acropolis tahoecommunitychurch.org

the byzantine shops at sardis pdf

Sardis Encyclopedia.com. A rchaeology and the Cities of Asia Minor in Late Antiquity Edited by Ortwin Dally and Christopher Ratté Kelsey Museum Publication 6 Ann Arbor, Michigan 2011 1 Sardis in Late Antiquity Marcus Rautman A sia Minor has always been central to the study of classical urban culture, particularly during its long late antique twilight.1 Understanding this transitional phase of ancient settled life has, Sardis (sär´dĬs) or Sardes (–dēz), ancient city of Lydia, W Asia Minor [1], at the foot of Mt. Tmolus, 35 mi (56 km) NE of the modern Izmir, Turkey. As capital of Lydia, it was the political and cultural center of Asia Minor [2] from 650 BC until the death of Croesus [3] (c.547 BC)..

Shops for small industry and retail trade in a late

Houses streets and shops in Byzantine Constantinople from. several years at the Sardis Archeological Expedition at Harvard as editor and contributing author of the Byzantine Shops at Sardis (Harvard University Press 1990)—he decided to combine avocation and vocation in the field of landscape and architectural design., Religions of the World: A Journey through Africa, Mesoamerica, North America, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, China, and Japan.

Religions of the World: A Journey through Africa, Mesoamerica, North America, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, China, and Japan Archaeological Exploration of Sardis, 9: The Byzantine Shops at Sardis by J. Stephens Crawford (review) Caroline Williams , Hector Williams Echos du monde classique: Classical views

J. Crawford, The Byzantine Shops at Sardis (Cambridge, MA 1990). D. Crouch, Geology and Settlement: Greco-Roman Patterns (Oxford 2004). H. Cuvigny, Mons Claudianus. Ostraca Graeca et Latina III. Les Reçus pour Avances à la Familia, O.Claud. 417 à 631 (Cairo 2000). HISTORY OF THE CHURCH AT SARDIS. 54 / 55 “Write to the angel of the church in Sardis: “The One who has the seven spirits of God and the seven stars says: I know your works; you have a reputation for being alive, but you are dead. 2 Be alert and

Sardis Archeological Expedition at Harvard as editor and contributing author of the Byzantine Shops at Sardis (Harvard University Press 1990) – he decided to combine avocation and vocation in the field of landscape and architectural design. He founded his own design/ build firm . Download PDF Download. Share. Export. Advanced Journal of Medieval History. Volume 30, Issue 2, June 2004, Pages 83-107. Houses, streets and shops in Byzantine Constantinople from the fifth to the twelfth centuries. Author links open overlay panel K.R. Dark. Show more. The Byzantine shops at Sardis (Cambridge, MA,

N 38 28 55 E 28 2 43 (Sardis) N 3834 48 E 28 00 25 (Bintepe) Byzantine Shops, and related areas were restored in the 1960s and 1970s, according to the best standards then in use. The Marble Court was the first large-scale anastylosis project in Turkey, and became a model for later projects such as the Library of Celsus at Ephesus. Description: The American Journal of Archaeology, published by the Archaeological Institute of America, was founded in 1885 and is one of the world's oldest and most distinguished and widely distributed archaeological journals. The AJA reaches more than 50 countries and almost 1,000 universities, learned societies, departments of antiquities, and museums.

Jul 10, 2016В В· AWOL is a project of Charles E. Jones, Tombros Librarian for Classics and Humanities at the Pattee Library, Penn State University AWOL began with a series of entries under the heading AWOL on the Ancient World Bloggers Group Blog.I moved it to its own space here beginning in 2009. The primary focus of the project is notice and comment on open access material relating to the ancient world, but The importance of Byzantine Sardis rests on its literary renown, metropolitan status, and long-term exploration in modern times. As capital of the late antique province of Lydia, the walled city with its major monuments covered more than 120 ha of the acropolis slopes and urban plan. The western bath-gymnasium, along with neighboring streets, houses, and a synagogue, functioned as a civic

Religions of the World: A Journey through Africa, Mesoamerica, North America, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, China, and Japan Download PDF Download. Share. Export. Advanced Journal of Medieval History. Volume 30, Issue 2, June 2004, Pages 83-107. Houses, streets and shops in Byzantine Constantinople from the fifth to the twelfth centuries. Author links open overlay panel K.R. Dark. Show more. The Byzantine shops at Sardis (Cambridge, MA,

This page was last edited on 24 February 2019, at 13:46. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; all unstructured text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. Sardis (Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Culture) A brief encyclopedia-type article which discusses the history of the region. Sardis (Cities of Revelation) Summarizes the basic facts about Sardis in a user-friendly format. Features several nice photographs.

The importance of Byzantine Sardis rests on its literary renown, metropolitan status, and long-term exploration in modern times. As capital of the late antique province of Lydia, the walled city with its major monuments covered more than 120 ha of the acropolis slopes and urban plan. The western bath-gymnasium, along with neighboring streets, houses, and a synagogue, functioned as a civic Daniel at Sardis Marcus Rautman Department of Art History & Archaeology 109 Pickard Hall University of Missouri Columbia, MO 65211 rautmanm@missouri.edu Recently identified among the architectural decoration of the Sardis Synagogue are three fragments of …

monograph (Crawford, 1990) on the Byzantine shops in the ancient city of Sardis is unlikely to make it to the New York Timeshardcover bestseller list, but it is of immense interest to other specialists. As has been noted many times, the positivist and postpositivist approach is based on a number of givens or foundational beliefs. One of the most Description: The American Journal of Archaeology, published by the Archaeological Institute of America, was founded in 1885 and is one of the world's oldest and most distinguished and widely distributed archaeological journals. The AJA reaches more than 50 countries and almost 1,000 universities, learned societies, departments of antiquities, and museums.

This page was last edited on 24 February 2019, at 13:46. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; all unstructured text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. A rchaeology and the Cities of Asia Minor in Late Antiquity Edited by Ortwin Dally and Christopher RattГ© Kelsey Museum Publication 6 Ann Arbor, Michigan 2011 1 Sardis in Late Antiquity Marcus Rautman A sia Minor has always been central to the study of classical urban culture, particularly during its long late antique twilight.1 Understanding this transitional phase of ancient settled life has

Love for Lydia: A Sardis Anniversary Volume Presented to Crawford H. Greenewalt, Ancient and Byzantine Glass from Sardis, The Byzantine Shops at Sardis, by J. Stephens Crawford ( ) Daniel at Sardis Marcus Rautman Department of Art History & Archaeology 109 Pickard Hall University of Missouri Columbia, MO 65211 rautmanm@missouri.edu Recently identified among the architectural decoration of the Sardis Synagogue are three fragments of …

Journal of Near Eastern Studies Vol 55 No 2

the byzantine shops at sardis pdf

Vol. 96 No. 3 Jul. 1992 of American Journal of. Jul 10, 2016В В· AWOL is a project of Charles E. Jones, Tombros Librarian for Classics and Humanities at the Pattee Library, Penn State University AWOL began with a series of entries under the heading AWOL on the Ancient World Bloggers Group Blog.I moved it to its own space here beginning in 2009. The primary focus of the project is notice and comment on open access material relating to the ancient world, but, M7: Greek, Roman, and Islamic Coins from Sardis [PDF] T. V. Buttrey, Ann Johnston, Kenneth M. MacKenzie, and Michael L. Bates, 1981. PDF courtesy of the AMAR Archive.

The Ancient Synagogue of Sardis Turkey Beit Hatfutsot. SARDIS: ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH AND CONSERVATION PROJECTS IN 2001 CrawfordH. GREENEWALT,JR* Surveys, exeavation. conservation, restoration, touristic enhancementand study projects at the city of Sardis (Fig. 1) in 2001 (early June to mid-August) were conduc-ted by the Archaeoloqical Exploration of Sardis, or Sardis Expedition; which is co-spon-, Byzantine shops synagogue gymnasium palestra gymnasium marble court . Sardis Temple of Artemis Sardis shepherd with his sheep . Jesus’ Assessment of the Church at Sardis Striving to be Disciples who make Disciples A. Jesus’ Assessment of the Church at Sardis.

Sardis – following hadrian photography

the byzantine shops at sardis pdf

Sardis Encyclopedia.com. Sardis Archeological Expedition at Harvard as editor and contributing author of the Byzantine Shops at Sardis (Harvard University Press 1990) – he decided to combine avocation and vocation in the field of landscape and architectural design. He founded his own design/ build firm . M7: Greek, Roman, and Islamic Coins from Sardis [PDF] T. V. Buttrey, Ann Johnston, Kenneth M. MacKenzie, and Michael L. Bates, 1981. PDF courtesy of the AMAR Archive.

the byzantine shops at sardis pdf

  • Clothing during the Byzantium Era curriculumhistory.org
  • (PDF) Sardis in Late Antiquity Marcus Rautman Academia.edu
  • Vol. 96 No. 3 Jul. 1992 of American Journal of

  • Religions of the World: A Journey through Africa, Mesoamerica, North America, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, China, and Japan M7: Greek, Roman, and Islamic Coins from Sardis [PDF] T. V. Buttrey, Ann Johnston, Kenneth M. MacKenzie, and Michael L. Bates, 1981. PDF courtesy of the AMAR Archive

    Download PDF Download. Share. Export. Advanced Journal of Medieval History. Volume 30, Issue 2, June 2004, Pages 83-107. Houses, streets and shops in Byzantine Constantinople from the fifth to the twelfth centuries. Author links open overlay panel K.R. Dark. Show more. The Byzantine shops at Sardis (Cambridge, MA, Daniel at Sardis Marcus Rautman Department of Art History & Archaeology 109 Pickard Hall University of Missouri Columbia, MO 65211 rautmanm@missouri.edu Recently identified among the architectural decoration of the Sardis Synagogue are three fragments of …

    Jul 10, 2016В В· AWOL is a project of Charles E. Jones, Tombros Librarian for Classics and Humanities at the Pattee Library, Penn State University AWOL began with a series of entries under the heading AWOL on the Ancient World Bloggers Group Blog.I moved it to its own space here beginning in 2009. The primary focus of the project is notice and comment on open access material relating to the ancient world, but Jul 12, 2019В В· View of the Byzantine Shops and the Bath-Gymnasium Complex. The Byzantine Shops. The streets of Late Roman Sardis were flanked by buildings that served a variety of residential, commercial, and industrial purposes. The shops formed part of a lively commercial district in the 5th-6th centuries.

    several years at the Sardis Archeological Expedition at Harvard as editor and contributing author of the Byzantine Shops at Sardis (Harvard University Press 1990)—he decided to combine avocation and vocation in the field of landscape and architectural design. N 38 28 55 E 28 2 43 (Sardis) N 3834 48 E 28 00 25 (Bintepe) Byzantine Shops, and related areas were restored in the 1960s and 1970s, according to the best standards then in use. The Marble Court was the first large-scale anastylosis project in Turkey, and became a model for later projects such as the Library of Celsus at Ephesus.

    Shops for small industry and retail trade in a late-antique city - J. STEPHENS CRAWFORD, THE BYZANTINE SHOPS AT SARDIS (Archaeological Exploration of Sardis, Monograph no.9, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA1990). Pp. x + 156, 610 figs. ISBN 0-674-08968-5. - Volume 6 - … Download PDF Download. Share. Export. Advanced Journal of Medieval History. Volume 30, Issue 2, June 2004, Pages 83-107. Houses, streets and shops in Byzantine Constantinople from the fifth to the twelfth centuries. Author links open overlay panel K.R. Dark. Show more. The Byzantine shops at Sardis (Cambridge, MA,

    A rchaeology and the Cities of Asia Minor in Late Antiquity Edited by Ortwin Dally and Christopher Ratté Kelsey Museum Publication 6 Ann Arbor, Michigan 2011 1 Sardis in Late Antiquity Marcus Rautman A sia Minor has always been central to the study of classical urban culture, particularly during its long late antique twilight.1 Understanding this transitional phase of ancient settled life has Shops for small industry and retail trade in a late-antique city - J. STEPHENS CRAWFORD, THE BYZANTINE SHOPS AT SARDIS (Archaeological Exploration of Sardis, Monograph no.9, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA1990). Pp. x + 156, 610 figs. ISBN 0-674-08968-5. - Volume 6 - …

    Religions of the World: A Journey through Africa, Mesoamerica, North America, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, China, and Japan Sardis Archeological Expedition at Harvard as editor and contributing author of the Byzantine Shops at Sardis (Harvard University Press 1990) – he decided to combine avocation and vocation in the field of landscape and architectural design. He founded his own design/ build firm .

    Love for Lydia: A Sardis Anniversary Volume Presented to Crawford H. Greenewalt, Ancient and Byzantine Glass from Sardis, The Byzantine Shops at Sardis, by J. Stephens Crawford ( ) This page was last edited on 24 February 2019, at 13:46. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; all unstructured text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply.

    J. Crawford, The Byzantine Shops at Sardis (Cambridge, MA 1990). D. Crouch, Geology and Settlement: Greco-Roman Patterns (Oxford 2004). H. Cuvigny, Mons Claudianus. Ostraca Graeca et Latina III. Les Reçus pour Avances à la Familia, O.Claud. 417 à 631 (Cairo 2000). Religions of the World: A Journey through Africa, Mesoamerica, North America, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, China, and Japan

    J. Crawford, The Byzantine Shops at Sardis (Cambridge, MA 1990). D. Crouch, Geology and Settlement: Greco-Roman Patterns (Oxford 2004). H. Cuvigny, Mons Claudianus. Ostraca Graeca et Latina III. Les Reçus pour Avances à la Familia, O.Claud. 417 à 631 (Cairo 2000). Religions of the World: A Journey through Africa, Mesoamerica, North America, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, China, and Japan

    monograph (Crawford, 1990) on the Byzantine shops in the ancient city of Sardis is unlikely to make it to the New York Timeshardcover bestseller list, but it is of immense interest to other specialists. As has been noted many times, the positivist and postpositivist approach is based on a number of givens or foundational beliefs. One of the most SARDIS: ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH AND CONSERVATION PROJECTS IN 2001 CrawfordH. GREENEWALT,JR* Surveys, exeavation. conservation, restoration, touristic enhancementand study projects at the city of Sardis (Fig. 1) in 2001 (early June to mid-August) were conduc-ted by the Archaeoloqical Exploration of Sardis, or Sardis Expedition; which is co-spon-

    Sardis (sär´dĬs) or Sardes (–dēz), ancient city of Lydia, W Asia Minor [1], at the foot of Mt. Tmolus, 35 mi (56 km) NE of the modern Izmir, Turkey. As capital of Lydia, it was the political and cultural center of Asia Minor [2] from 650 BC until the death of Croesus [3] (c.547 BC). Daniel at Sardis Marcus Rautman Department of Art History & Archaeology 109 Pickard Hall University of Missouri Columbia, MO 65211 rautmanm@missouri.edu Recently identified among the architectural decoration of the Sardis Synagogue are three fragments of …